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经济贸易
国民经济常用语 中央计划经济 指令性经济 网络经济 实证经济学 外向型经济 实体经济 规模经济 规模不经济 经济规律 看不见的手 发挥市场调节作用 经济和法律的杠杆 centrally planned economy mandatory plan Internet-based economy positive economy export-oriented economy the real economy economies of scale diseconomy of scale laws of economics the invisible hand give play to the regulatory role of the market economic and legal leverages

经济计划和市场调节相结合 combine economic planning with market regulation 优化资源配置 规模经营优势 比较优势 新凯恩思主义 货币主义者 供给学派 企业集团 全民所有制 集体所有制 国有企业 集体企业 私营企业 民营企业 optimize allocations of scale advantage of economies of scale comparative advantage new Keynesian monetarist supply-side economist business conglomerate ownership by the whole people collective ownership state-ownership enterprises(SOEs) partnership enterprises private businesses privately-run businesses
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中小企业

small and medium enterprises(Sees)

三资企业 three forms of foreign-invested enterprises 连锁企业 franchise/chain businesses 下游企业 down-stream enterprises 高附加值 high added value 主要经济指标 major economic indicator 人均国内生产总值 GDP per capita 工农业总产值 gross output value of industry and agriculture 工业增加值 industrial added value 实际增长率 growth rate in real terms 年均增长率 average growth rate per am mum 可持续增长 sustainable growth 出口导向型增长 export-led growth 投资驱动增长 investment-driven growth 增额;增加值 increment 经济效益 economic returns/business performance 社会商品零售总额 total retail sales 百分点 percentage point 按原口径计算 calculate at the base line 按不变价格计算 calculate at constant price 按可比价格计算 calculate at comparable price 投资回报率 rate of return on investment 外贸进出口总额 total foreign trade value 外贸顺差 foreign trade surplus 逆差 deficit 实际利用外资 foreign investment in place 资金到位 fully funded 财政收入 tax revenue 国民收入 national income

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总需求曲线 aggregate demand curve 总供给曲线 aggregate supply curve 总支出曲线 aggregate expenditures curve 消费价格指数 consumer price index(CIP) 零售价格指数 retail price index(CPI) 生活费用价格总指数 total price index of living cost 生活费用 income available for living expenses 扣除物价因素 in real terms 居民储存存款 domestic savings 恩格尔系数(食品开支比例)Engel coefficient 基尼系数(地区差别)Gina coefficient 科斯定理 Cease’s theorem 购买力平价法 purchasing power parity(PPP) 片面追求发展速度 excessive pursuit of growth 经济增长减速 slowdown of economic growth 泡沫经济 bubble economy 经济过热 overheating of economy 炒房地产热 frenzied and speculative trading in the property market 三角债 chain debts/interenterprise arrears 结构失调 structural imbalance 结构性矛盾突出 acute structural imbalance 优化结构 structural optimization 供大于求 oversupply 供不应求 short supply 需求拉动的通货膨胀 demand-pull inflation 恶性通货膨胀 hyperinflation 滞胀 stagflation 菲律普曲线(失业与货胀)Phillips cure 经济紧缩 crunch

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不景气 slump/sluggish 衰退 recession 大萧条 great depression 负增长 negative depression 高息集资 raise funds by offering high interest 超前消费 deficit spending 收益递减 diminishing returns 边际效用递减 diminishing marginal utility 财政赤字(盈余)budget deficit(surplus) 瓶颈制约 bottleneck constrains 双头垄断 duopoly 提高经济效益 enhance economic performance/increase economic returns 社会效益 beneficial social effect 充分就业 full employment 实 现 持续,稳定,协调的发展 bring about sustained, stable and coordinated development 培育新的经济增长点 foster new sectors economic growth 拉动经济增长 fuel economic growth 扭亏为盈 turn a loss-making business into a profitable one 放权让利 decentralization and interest concessions 深化改革 intensify reform/deepen one’s commitment to reforms 配套改革 supporting (concomitant) reforms 配套资金 counterpart funds/local funding of 改革试点 pilot for reform 放松管制 deregulation 权利下放 decentralization 杠杆率 leverage ratio 杠杆收购 leveraged buyout 利改税 substitution of tax payment for profit delivery

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费改税 transform administrative fees into taxes 债转股 debt-to-equity swap 充分发挥货币政策的作用 give full play to the role of monetary policy 事实积极的财政政策 follow a pro-active fiscal policy 向银行增发国债,扩大投资 The government issued additional treasury bonds to banks to increase investment 再注资 recapitalization 放松银根 to ease monetary policy 收紧银根 tighten up monetary policy 通货紧缩 deflation 适度从紧的财政政策 moderately tight fiscal policy 信用紧缩 credit crunch 启动民间投资 attract investment from the private sector 加速国民经济信息化 develop information-based economy/accelerate IT application in economy 实现经济增长方式的转变 effect change in the main source of economic growth (from investment expansion to performance gains) 优化经济结构 optimize economic structure 输入活力 bring vigor into 扩大内需 expand domestic demand 改善居民心理预期 inspire the general public’s confidence in the future needs 鼓励增加即期消费 encourage more immediate consumption 整顿经济秩序 rectify economic order 市场潜力转化为现实的购买 Market potential turns into tangible purchasing power 基本适度 broadly appropriate 平衡发展 balanced development 平稳回升 steady recovery 普遍回升 broad-based recovery 软着陆 soft landing

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复式预算制 capital and current budgetary account 工业成本利润率 profit-to-cost ratio 规范行为 regularize behavior 国计民生 national interest and people’s livelihood 基础设施投资 investment in infrastructure 基本经济要素 economic fundamentals (银行资金)头寸宽裕(头寸紧缺)in an easy position(tight position) 招标投标制 the system of public bidding for project 适销对路的产品 the right products/readily marketable products 经济特区 special economic zones(Seas) “ 十 五 ” 计 划 The 10th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development 劳动密集型 labor intensive 技术,智力,资本密集型 technology knowledge or capital intensive 高附加值的深加工 down-stream processing with high added-value 技术入股 technology appraised as capital stock 风险投资 venture investment 生产资料 capital goods 固定资产投资 investment in fixed assets 折旧费 depreciation cost 关系国计民生的产品 products vital to national economy and people’s livelihood 朝阳产业 sunrise(emerging) industry 承包经营 contract for business management 承包责任制 system for contracted responsibility 计件工资制度 piece-rate system 最高限价 price ceiling 鼓励 give incentive to 非公有成分 non-public sectors 主要成分 dominant sector

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引进;输入 importation 搞活企业 invigorate enterprises 经济繁荣 economy boom 中 国 现 代 化 三 步 走 战 略 the three-step development strategy of China’s modernization drive 1990 年国民生产总值比 1980 年翻一番 GNP91990) doubles that of 1980 2000 年人均国内生产总值比 1980 年翻两番, 人民生活达到小康水平 GDP of 2000 guadruples that of 1980;people live a fairy comfortable life. 到 21 世纪中期,达到中等发达国家水平 21st century, the lever of development is expected to be a par with the mid-ranking developed countries. 新兴工业化国家 newly industrialized countries(NICs) 商务谈判用语 贸易谈判 这是我们的价目表 This is our price list. 您觉得这个报价如何?What did you think about that offer? 这些价格是你们的国内价吗?Are these prices for your domestic customers as well. 这些价格也同样使用于海外 We apply these prices to overseas customers as well. 我们可以还价 We may make a counteroffer. 市场条件依国家不同而异 Market conditions vary from country to country. 您应该知道,本地市场竞争很激烈 As you may know, the market here is very competitive. 换句话说,我们需要较低的价格 In other words, we need lower prices. 您可以报一个更合适的价格吗?Could you make a more favorable offer? 价格因数量而有所不同 Prices depend on volume. 您对市场怎么预测?What is your estimate of the market? 你们的价格高的太离谱了 Your prices are much too high. 我可以降到 70 美元,这是最低价了 I am prepared to go to 70 US dollars, but no further. 那我们暂定在 70 美元 Then, let us shake on 70 US dollars.

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假如今天下定单,什么时候可以收货?When could I expect to get the supply if I gave you an order today? 您可以确定发货日期吗?Could you confirm the dispatch date? 产品怎样包装,运输?How are the products packaged and shipped? 您打算怎样付款?How would you propose to pay? 我们通常在发货后 40 天内用支票付款 We always pay by check 40 days after dispatch.. 我们必须有信用证才能出货 We always ask for a letter of credit before dispatch. 贵公司可以做我们的经销商,但不是代理商,同意吗?Your company can become our distributor, but not agent. Do you agree? 经销商指的是贵公司可以自行出货,并以合理的差价卖出 By distributor, I mean that your company may buy the products on your own account, and resell them with a reasonable markup. 代理商指的是贵公司以抽佣金方式卖我们公司的产品 By agent, I mean that your company may sell the products on behalf of my company and receives commission. 合资经营谈判 下一步,假如该产品畅销,我们可以考虑在本地直接生产 Thinking ahead, assuming that the product sells well, we may consider the possibility of producing it here. 我们公司必须对这样的合资企业拥有控股权 Our company must have a controlling interest in such joint venture. 股权比例可以商量,不排除各占 50 的合资 We are flexible about the ownership ratio and do not rule out a 50/50 JV. 我认为,50 对 50 的投资比例行不通 I do not believe a 50/50 venture is workable. 我建议可以考虑采取合伙制形式 I suggest we consider the form of partnership. 如何确定股权价值 How would the value of equity be determined? 该合资企业有什么负责人?What kind of officers does the JV have? 由谁来提名这些负责人?Who would nominate the officers? 总裁任期时间多久?What is the duration of the term of CEO?

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我方已有几个总裁人选 We have a few CEO candidates in mind. 由于总部开会都用汉语,总裁如果是中国人,沟通就比较方便 Since meetings are held at our head office and carried out in the Chinese language, it would facilitate

communication if the CEO is a Chinese. 某些重要的管理事项必须有董事或股东一致同意 Some important items regarding the management shall be effected only by unanimous consent of all the board members or shareholders. 如果事情经过讨论还无法解决,则由合资公司母公司会议决定 If it is still unresolved after discussion, the case shall be referred to a meeting of the presidents of the parent company for a final decision. 我方认为,成功的关键之一在于确保不断地更新换代 We believe that one of the keys to success is to ensure an on-going updating and upgrading. 协议书谈判 现在该讨论协议书了吧 Perhaps it is time to discuss the agreement. 如果一切都令人满意,我们可以起草一份合同 If everything is satisfactory, we can draw up a formal contract. 我想概括一下双方商定的要点 If I may, I would like to summarize the points we agreed upon. 如果您同意,我提议由我方草拟草案 I propose we prepare the draft if you agree. 我们有一些参考资料 We have some documents as model. 我们回根据这个标准合同准备一份草案 We prepare a draft according to this standard contract. 是否请双方律师出席下次会议?Should both of us have our lawyers present in our next meeting? 实际上我方已经请了一家知名的律师事物所着手起草了 In fact we have asked a reputable law firm to start drafting. 我想请您说明几个问题 Could I ask you to clarify a few points? 请问合同中的“吨”是怎么界定的?How is the term “ton” defined in the proposed contract?

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哪一方有权终止合同?Which party has the ultimate right to terminate the contract? 这一条跟您的说明并不一致 I think this clause and your explanation are at odds with each other. 我方找不到“不可抗力”条款 We cannot find a force majeure clause. 我们疏忽遗漏了,非常抱歉 We must have slipped. I apologize for the oversight. 但我们确实不是故意的 But I assure you it was not intentional. 我想更具体的商议一下担保条件 I would like to discuss the terms of warranty in more detail. 我方认为,合同书里不应该写上这么模糊的条款 We do not think we should leave such an ambiguous clause in the contract. 这一条并没有表达我的观点 I am afraid this clause does not address the points I raised. 坦率地说,第 8 段对我方并不公平 Frankly speaking, I do not think Paragraph 8 is fair to us. 贵方的改动同双方商定的条件有很大的出入 The revision you present is far from the terms we agreed upon. 除非恰当地加上…,否则我们无法再谈下去 We cannot proceed any further unless you properly incorporate. 我们得想方设法就这个遗留问题达成共识 We need to make a renewed effort to come to some accord on this remaining issue. 如果贵方接受我方的第二款的意见,我方愿意对第三款作让步 We are wiling to bend on clause 3 if you can accept our position on clause 2. 我们认为,我方已对贵方的条件采取了折中的办法 We believe we have met your terms halfway. 对这个条件,我们已经没有回旋的余地了 We have no room for maneuver on this term. 按我们公司政策规定,这一条只能如此 Our company’s policy dictates that this clause has to be as it is. 只剩下一个问题没解决,我得向我们公司领导层汇报,请他们研究 There is only one pending issue. I must report to our management for their deliberation.
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今晚加把劲,完成协议书文本,我们明天就可以签约 If we work a little harder tonight to finish the text of the agreement, we can be ready for signing tomorrow. 对外经济合作 经济交流 economic exchange 对 外 经 济 交 流 economic cooperation(business partnership) concerning foreign interests “引进来”strategy of “Attracting Foreign Investment” “走出去” strategy of “Going Global” 国家标准化组织 International Organization for Standardization(ISO) 闭关政策 “closed-door” (exclusion) policy 闭关自守 cut oneself off from the outside world 实行全方位开放 All regions and sectors are open up. 大经贸战略 strategy of broadly-based foreign trade and economic cooperation 营造良好的投资环境 forest a favorable investment climate 软环境 intangible infrastructure 扩大对外投资的开放领域 expand the scope for FDI 取消或进一步放宽外商投资限制 eliminate or future relax restrictions on foreign investment 鼓励外资的税收政策 tax incentives for attracting foreign investment 出口退税制度 system of refunding taxes on exported goods 保证金台账制度 deposit account system for processing trade 免二减三 exemption for income tax for the first 2 years of making profit and 50% tax reduction for the following 3 years 积极引进外来资金,技术,人才和管理经验 actively introduce capital, technology, competent professionals and managerial expertise from outside 国际竞争性招标 international competitive bidding 跨国公司 multinational corporation 实行国民待遇 grant national treatment to 可行性研究 feasibility study

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投资协议金额 contracted foreign direct investment 实际利用外资 foreign investment in actual use 利用外资 utilization of foreign capital 吸收外资 foreign capital intake 合作方式 approach to cooperation 外商独资经营 wholly foreign-owned operation 外商控股 controlling foreign equity 合资经营 equity joint 合作经营 contractual joint venture 合营期限 contract term of a joint venture 三来一补 three-forms of OEM and compensation trades 来料加工 processing with materials 来件装配 processing with given samples 来样加工 assembling supplied components 专有技术 know-how 统包工程 turn-key project 租赁 leasing 优惠条件 concessional/favorable terms 减免税收 tax reduction and exemption 投资重点 investment priority 现汇 spot exchange 实物 investment in kind 工业产权 industrial property 外资企业本地化 naturalization of foreign enterprise 外资企业国有化 nationalization of foreign enterprise 零部件国产化比率 rate of local contents of components 外债 external debt 国际通行做法 universal practice 公开招标 open bidding

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招标 call for bid/tender invitation 招标文件 tender documents 协议招标 negotiated bidding 投标保证金 tender bond 投标 bid for/submission of tender document 标价 bid price/quotation 投标策略 tender ’s tactics 评标 tender assessment 开标 tender opening 定标 award of contract 废标 rejection of all bids 中标 win a tender/a bidding 接受外方股东担保 accept guarantee provided by foreign shareholders 外汇质押 foreign exchange collateral securities 中国外汇指定银行 designates Chinese bank dealing in foreign exchange business 涉外经济法律 foreign-related economic law 世界贸易组织 前身 关税及经贸总协定 General Agreement of Tariff and Trade(GATT) 缔约方 contracting parties 正式而言,关贸总协定是法律文书 Officially GATT was a legal text. 关贸总协定管的只是货物贸易 GATT dealt only with trade in goods. 乌 拉 圭 回 合 The Uruguay Round, the largest trade negotiation under GATT throughout the world. 性质及对比关贸总协定 世界贸易组织是世界上独一无二的处理国家之间贸易规则的世界性组织, 其核心 是世贸协议 The World Trade Organization(WTO) is the only international body dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements. 世界贸易组织及世贸协议是永久性的 The WTO and its agreements are permanent.

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成员的立法机构批准了世贸协议 Members have ratified the WTO agreements. 协议本身描述了世贸的运作 The agreements themselves describe hoe the WTO is to function. 世贸还管服务贸易和知识产权 The WTO covers services and intellectual property as well. 世贸争端解决体系更迅速,更主动 The WTO dispute settlement system is faster, more automatic. 其裁决不受阻挠 Its rulings cannot be blocked. 国民待遇 -给予外国人和本国人一样的待遇 national treatment-giving others the same treatment as one’s own nationals 宗旨 使贸易尽可能自由流动 help trade flow as freely as possible 作为一个贸易谈判的论坛 serve as a forum for trade negotiations 争端解决 settle disputes 原则 非歧视 without discrimination 更利于欠发达国家 more beneficial for less developed countries 组织结构 总理事会 General Council 货物贸易理事会 Council for Trade in goods 与贸易有关的知识产权理事会 Council for Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights 服务贸易理事会 Council for Trade in service 仲裁小组 Dispute Settlement Panel 上诉法庭 Appellate Body 最不发达国家高级别会议 High-lever Meeting for LDCs 有关术语 诸边协议(几个世贸成员之间)Plurilaterals(signed by only a few WTO members than all)

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最惠国待遇 most-favored-nation treatment 免费搭车者 free-rider 多边贸易体系 multilateral trade system 行业谈判 sectoral negotiations 最初谈判权 initialing rights(INRs) 《识产权协议》Agreement on Intellectual Property Rights 自然人流动 presence of natural person 加入议定书 Protocol on the Accession 国营贸易产品 products subjects to state trading 指定经营产品 products subjects to designating trading (农业)黄箱政策 yellow box policy (农业)综合支持总量 total aggregate measurement of support(Total AMS) (农业)微量支持水平 deminimis level 市场准入 market access 非关税措施取消时间表 non-tariff measures subject to phased elimination 需逐步取消的补贴 subsidies to be phased out 关税配额 tariff quotas 优惠关税 preferential tariff 非关税减让 non-tariff concessions 进口配额 import quota 非配额产品 quota-free products 进口渗透 import penetration 基础税率 base tariff level 进口环节税 import linkage tax 反补贴税 countervailing 规避 circumvention 倾销 dumping sales 反倾销措施 anti-dumping measures against 交叉报复 cross retaliate

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透明度 transparency 更明确的产品安全标准规定 clearer criteria for regulations dealing with the safety standards of products 比较优势产业 industries with comparative advantage 《关于争端解决规则与程序的谅解》 Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes 妥善解决争端 resolve disputes peacefully and constructively 上诉机构 appeal body 《北美自由贸易协定》North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA) 东盟自由贸易区 ASEAN Free Area 东 部 和 南 部 非 洲 共 同 市 场 Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa(COMESA) 对外贸易 外贸量 quantum of foreign trade 转口贸易 entrepot trade 有行贸易 visible trade 无形贸易 invisible trade 无纸贸易 electronic data interchange 记账贸易 trade with payment open account 零沽交易 odd lots trading 出口替代政策 export substitute policy 《国际贸易标准分类》Standard International Trade Classification(SITC) 知识产权贸易 trade of intellectual-property 非货物贸易 non-merchandise trade 建筑工程服务 construction engineering service 贸易差额 balance of trade 贸易顺差 trade surplus 贸易逆差 trade deficit 入超 excess of foreign imports

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出超 excess of foreign exports 外销上升 strong export sales 减缓增幅 sluggish increase 互通有无 mutual exchange of needed products 国际分工 international division of labor 布雷顿林体系 Bretton Woods System 关税的初高点 initial height of the tariff 关税减让 tariff concession 关税升级 tariff escalation 关税优惠 tariff preference 关税自主 tariff autonomy 关税最高限额 tariff ceiling 对外贸易仲裁委员会 Foreign Trade Arbitration Commission 贸易自由化 trade liberalization 多边贸易体系 multilateral trading system 进口许可证制度 import license system 外贸管制 foreign trade control 进出口经营权 power to engage in import and export trade 掠夺性倾销 predatory dumping 外贸国家垄断制 foreign trade under state monopoly 法治 rule of law 入世 accede to WTO 与世界经济的联系更密切 be more closely linked to the world economy 适应市场经济需要的法律体系还不够健全 The regulatory and legal system is not well established to the demand of market economy. 经济管理体制可能会出现一些不适应 THE economic management system may not be readily adapted to the changes. 一 些 行 业 和 企 业 可 能 会 受 到 一 些 冲 击 Some sectors of economy and some businesses may be adversely affected.

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苛刻的条件 harsh terms 立足中国国情, 发挥自身优势 processed from national conditions in China and bring our advantages into play 扬 长 避 短 , 趋 利 弊 害 , 迎 接 经 济 全 球 化 的 挑 战 foster strengths, circumvent weaknesses and rise to the challenge of economic globalization 深化国有企业改革 intensify reform on state-owned enterprises 增强技术创新能力 increase capability of technological innovation 增强市场竞争能力 enhance competitiveness on the market 增强抗风险能力 improve risk management 统 一 政 策 , 放 开 经 营 , 平 等 竞 争 unified policy, liberalized operation, equal completion 自负盈亏,工贸结合,推行代理制 responsibility for one’s own profits and losses, integration of industry and foreign trade, and promotion of agent system 守约, 保质, 薄利, 重信 observe agreement, guarantee quality, make small profits and value good faith 外汇存留 retention of foreign exchange 保税仓库 bonded warehouse 互惠合同 reciprocal contract 国际结算 international settlements 国际收支条款 BOP(Balance-of-payments) Provisions 出口收汇核销单 paper for verification of export earnings 出口许可证制 export license system 出口波动补偿资助 compensatory financing 出口信贷国家担保制 export credit guarantee system 出口市场多样化 diversification of overseas market 出口退税 foreign export rebate(drawback) 出口提单 export bill of landing 《国际贸易术语解释通则》International of Trade Terms/Incoterms 国际商会 International Chamber of Commerce

18

习惯做法 course of dealing 工厂交货 EX works (EXW) 船边交货 free alongside ship(FCA) 船上交货 free on board(FOB) 成本加运费 cost and freight(CFR) 许可证,其他许可和手续 license, authorization and formalities 到岸价格 cost, insurance and freight(CIF) 运费,保险费付至 carriage and insurance paid to(CIP) 边境交货 delivered at frontier(DAF) 目的港船上交货 delivered ex ship (DES) 目的港码头交货 delivered ex quay(DEQ) 未完税交货 delivered duty unpaid(DDU) 清关 customs clearance 对外承包工程 contracted projects in other countries 对外经济援助 economic-aid to other countries 经济援助项目 economic-aid to projects 援款协议 financial-aid 受援国 recipient countries 专家组 specialist groups 实物援助 assistance in kind 电子商务 身份认证 authentication 认证机构 certification authority(CA) 支付前通知 advance notification of payment 装运前通知 advance shipment notice(ASN) 自动交换中心 automated clearing houses(ACH) 自动取款机 automated teller machine(ATM) 条形码 bar coding 伪签名 blind signature

19

网关 gateway 资金集中与支付 cash concentration and disbursement(CCD) 审查芯片 clipper chip 消费者电子数据交换 consumer EDI 永续更新 continuous replenishment(CR) 公司交易支付 corporate trade payments(CTP) 电子数据交换成本 costs of EDI 数据编码加密标准 data encryption standard(DES) 计账卡 debit card 支付服务 disbursement services 非居间化 disintermediation 重复付款 double spending 电子数据交换银行联合网络 EDIBANX 电子数据交换网关 EDI gateways 电子数据交换集线路 EDI hubs 电子数据交换翻译软件 EDI translation software 消费者有效应答 efficient consumer response(ECR) 电子商品目录 e-catalog 电子商务标准设定 electronic commerce standard-setting 财政预算 财政预算 fiscal budget 临时预算 extraordinary budget 预算收入 budgetary revenue 预算支出 budgetary expenditure 预算赤字 budgetary deficit 预算盈余 budgetary surplus 外汇收入 earnings from foreign exchange 行政管理费 administrative costs 自筹投资项目 self-financed projects

20

税收 税收政策 tax policy 税收征收管理法 Law on Tax Collection and Administration 分税制 revenue-sharing 税收管理权限划分 division of tax administration power 流转税 turnover tax 增值税 value-added tax(VAT) 汇总所得税 consolidated income tax 土地增值税 land appreciation tax 房地产交易税 real estate transaction tax 城镇土地使用税 urban land use tax 公路通行税 road toll 人头税 poll tax 不动产税 real estate tax 印花税 stamp duty 亏损依前扣除 loss carry back 亏损依后扣除 loss carry forward 销项税额 output VAT 进项税额 input VAT 应纳税额 tax payable 扣税凭证 tax credit document 完税凭证 tax payment certificate 组成计税价格 composite value 起征点 taxable threshold 法定税率 legal tax rate 名义税率 nominal tax rate 实际税率 effective tax rate 边际税率 marginal tax rate 累进税率 progressive tax rate

21

扣除额 deductibles 加成征税 mark-up 重复征税 cascading taxation 共享收入按入库级次分管 Shared revenue will be administered at different levels according to where they are remitted to the treasury 按次纳税 pay tax on a transaction basis 固定资产投资方向调节税 tax on investment in fixed assets to rationalize such investment 国有土地有偿使用收入 income from the use of the state-owned land 估税员 tax assessor 税收裁定 adjudication of tax 企业所得税 corporate income tax 个人所得税 personal income tax 税率 tax rate 偷税 defraud revenue 滞纳金 late payment penalties 货币 流通货币 circulating medium 流通额 circulation 发行货币 issue currency 货币回笼 withdrawal of currency from circulation 电子货币 electronic currency 信用货币 credit currency 假钞票 counterfeit (bogus) money 自由兑换货币 convertible currencies 货币贬值 currency devaluation 货币升值 currency appreciation 融资 金融机构 financial institution

22

储蓄银行 savings bank 银行支行 sub-branch bank 信用社 credit cooperative 银行保险基金 Bank Insurance Fund 银行抵押业务 mortgage banking 储蓄存款 savings deposit 定期存期 time deposit 活期存期 demand deposit 本金 principal 利息 interest 个人理财 personal financing 家庭银行 home banking 汇款 remittance 国际金融市场 international financial market 借贷市场 loan market 风险资本 risk capital/venture capital 存款保证金 guaranty money for deposits 不动产 real estate 商业贷款 commercial loan 住房抵押贷款 residential mortgage loan 学生贷款 student loan 无息贷款 interest-free loan 金融监管 与国际市场接轨 integrate with the world market 整顿金融秩序 reorganize financial order 规范金融、保险业 to regulate finance and insurance industries 金融诈骗 financial fraud 亚洲金融危机 Asian financial crisis (1997---1998) 管理机制不健全 unsound internal governance mechanism

23

风险管理 risk management 坚持严格的贷款标准 maintain strong underwriting standards 银行挤兑 run on bank 保险 保险费 premium 保单分红方法 method of policy dividend allocation 理赔 claim settlement 索赔 claim for compensation 保险责任终止 termination of cover depositor forgery bond mortgage insurance endowment with 存款票据伪造保证保险

抵押保险 insurance 定期保障养老保险 工人工伤(血养) 保险

term

workmen’s compensation insurance cargo marine insurance navigation aviation

海上货物运输保险 航行风险保险 航空意外事故保险

risk insurance

accident insurance

Homeowner’s A Policy 家主A种保险 inland marine insurance ticket stub insurance 陆海运输保险

旅客意外伤害保险 人寿定期保险

endowment

(life) insurance

life insurance with dividend exchange risk insurance out-servant insurance universal

人寿分红保险

外汇风险保险

外勤人员保险 万能寿险 意外伤害保险

life insurance

casualty accident insurance life annuity insurance 证券股票 default-free securities

终生年金保险

安全证券 非流通证券

non-negotiable securities

24

debenture (UK) 债券 treasury bill (T-bills) treasury bond mortgage bond redeemable bond share options nominal speculate 短期国库券

长期国库券 抵押债券 可回赎债券

股票期权 挂名股东 炒股

partner in

the stock market (US) 优先股

preferred stock convertible stock letter stock

可转换股票

非公开上市股票 配售 高科技股 市盈率

private placement high-tech share

price-earnings ratio (PE) bonus stock 红利股票

gilt-edged securities seasoned securities blue chip margin cat 蓝筹股

金边证券 稳妥的股票

stock

差额股票 底价值股票 晴雨表股票

and dogs

barometer stock scrip 准股票

NASDAQ

纳斯达克高技术企业板

go public 公开上市 go on a road show 巡回推荐公司

quoted company 上市公司 prospectus 招股书 毛利 资产负债表

gross margin balance sheet

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portfolio

资产组合 实收资本 股本收益率 盈息率

paid-up capital

return on equity (ROE) interest coverage 准备金 ratio

provisions

underwrite securities nominal value 面值

承销

stock code

股票代码 股票交割公司

stock clearing corp over-subscription Nikkei Reuter’s Index Index

超额认购 日经指数 路透商品行情指数

stockbroker 证券经纪人 quotating 证券行情 board lot current odd-lot bull jump limit 上牌指数 price 成交价

rate knock down trading 碎股交易 牛市

market 暴涨 up

涨停板

ballooning 上涨 corner the market afternoon buyer liquidating market long stock close-out 大量买进股票

趁跌吸进的人 大量抛出

看涨时买下的股票

收盘

pyramiding 金字塔式控股 futures trading 期货交易 futures-physical ratio 期货-现货比率

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manipulation

of securities market

操纵证券市场 中国证监会

China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) manipulation principle of on stock exchange good faith

证券交易投机活动

诚信原则

non-executive director (NED)非执行董事 sponsor 保荐人 hedge fund Global 对冲基金

Depository Receipts (NED) 全球存拖凭证

disclosure 信息披露 insider dealing 内幕交易 商品 labor-intensive product up-stream product 劳动密集型商品

上游商品

technology-intensive product技术密集型商品 certified choice goods goods 正品 精品

brandnames 品牌货 knock-out the right product product 拳头产品 适销对路产品 大路货

run-of-the-mill dull goods

goods

冷门货 水货 日用百货

smuggled

goods

articles of daily use non-staple food marine product fair-price goods 副食品 海货

平价商品 出口转内销商品

export goods withdrawn for sale on home market semi-finished articles end product 成品 半成品

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inventory 库存 parity rate merchandiser 价格 比价 贸易商

wholesale price

批发价 内定价

administered price net price 实价

concluded price fluctuations special offer

成交价

大涨大 落 酬宾价

closing price 收盘价 state-listed price 国营牌价 monopolized sector 垄断行业

price monitoring 物价监控 price ceiling 价格上限 procurement nominal price 采购价

price 虚价 清仓价

clearance price spiral 盘旋上升

spurt 突然高涨 price has tobogganed 销售 market conditions market potential 行情 市场潜在需求量 power 集团购买力 突然下降

institutional

purchasing

market access

市场准入 市场分割

market segmentation

market feeling 市场人心

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find inroad into the market outlets 销售点 basis

打入市场

sales on a commission dealer 经销商 be on the sale行销 gross margin net profit on sales

代销

市场毛利

净利 销售平淡 萧条市场

lackluster sales sluggish brisk market

trading 交投活跃 突击销售法 内销

shotgun approach sell

on domestic market 搭售 to sell out

tied sale

be reluctant turnover 周转 hire purchase total contract

惜售

分期付款 成交总额

profiteer 倒爷 scalp 倒买倒卖

企业管理 zero-defect control 零缺陷管理 人群关系论

theory of throng relationship duality theory 对偶理论 business econometrics research

计量经济学 运筹学

operational

contingency theory 权变理论 cybernetics 控制论

probability 概率性模型 geocentricism 全球中心方式

29

feasibility study 可行性研究 graph theory 图论 information information asymmetry 信息不对称 disclosure 信息披露

insolvency 资不抵债 会计 business revenue entity principle recognition 独立实体原则 收入确认原则

principle

full-disclosure principle

充分揭示原则 一般审计原则

generally accepted auditing standards 财务报告 consolidated 合并报表 flows 现金流量表 调整前试算表

statement of cash

unadjusted trial balance bank reconciliation 账户 allowance for doubtful

银行调节表

坏帐备抵

merchandise inventory 商品库存 accumulated depreciation deferred asset intangible asset fixed loan fully funded have sufficient fund utilization 递延资产 无形资产 累积折旧

长期信用贷款 资金到位 funds 资金宽裕

资金利用率 资金体外循环

inancial disintermediation mortgage payable dividends payable retained earnings

应付抵押款 应付股息 留存收益

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treasury stock withdraw funds 海关

库藏股 撤资

supervision and control supervision and control supervision and control 际民航机的监管 customs declaration debenture 退税凭单 general tariff 通用税则 报关

over transit

cargo

过境货物监管 cargo 转运货物监管 service 国

over transshipment over civil aircraft

on international

preferential transit

tariff

特惠税则

duty 通过税 be declared 应申报物品 关税减免

articles to

tariff reduction and preferential

exemption

tariff treatment

关税优惠

variable levy 差价税 anti-dumping duty 反倾销税 customs seizure duty appraiser Supplement: 报盘以最后确认为准 To offer subject to the final confirmation 不可抗力 Force majeure 承保单 Cover note 出口经营自主权 Autonomy over export trade and 催税单 Tax demand 多式联运单证 Multi-modal transport document 放松银根 Ease monetary policy 非关税贸易壁垒 Nontariff trade barriers 跟单信用证 Documentary credit operations 海关查扣 海关估税员

31

关税升级 Tariff escalation 规模不经济 Diseconomy of scale 互购贸易 Counter purchase 汇率波动的官定上下限 Official upper and lower limits of fluctuation 货运代理 Feight forwarder 寄售贸易 Consignment trade 经济贸易纽带 Economic and trade ties 宽限期 Days of grace 垄断经营,高度集中,政企不分,统负盈亏 Monopolized operation by the state, highly centralized management, integration of government administration with enterprise operations and the state assuming responsibility for profits and losses 掠夺性倾销 Predatory dumping 贸易顺差 Favorable balance of trade 贸易条件恶化 Worsening terms of trade 赊账贸易 Open account trade 势力范围 Sphere of influence 贴现行情 Discount quotation 特约总经销 master franchise 行业内贸易 intra-industry trade 验收 inspection and acceptance 资金倒流 negative net flow of financial resources 自主自愿,协商一致。灵活渐进 voluntarism, consensus, flexibility and gradual progress 最惠国待遇 Most Favored Nation(MFN)treatment 层层转包和违法分包 multi-level contracting and illegal subcontracting 炒汇 speculate in foreign currency 出口创汇率 export-oriented 防范和化解金融风险 prevent or defuse financial risk; to guard against and reduce financial risk

32

经济渗透 economic infiltration 龙头产品 lagship product 扭亏为盈 to show a turn from loss to profit; make up deficits and increase surpluses 配股 allotment of shares 招商投标制 the tender system 资产剥离 to peel off assets of a company 标本兼治,整顿和规范市场经济秩序 rectify and regulate market economic order by treating both root causes and symptoms 常见缩略: C&F(cost&freight)成本加运费价 T/T(telegraphic transfer)电汇 D/P(document against payment)付款交单 D/A (document against acceptance)承兑交单 C.O (certificate of origin)一般原产地证 G.S.P.(generalized system of preferences)普惠制 CTN/CTNS(carton/cartons)纸箱 PCE/PCS(piece/pieces)只、个、支等 DL/DLS(dollar/dollars)美元 DOZ/DZ(dozen)一打 PKG(package)一包,一捆,一扎,一件等 WT(weight)重量 G.W.(gross weight)毛重 N.W.(net weight)净重 (customs declaration)报关单 EA(each)每个,各 W (with)具有 w/o(without)没有 FAC(facsimile)传真 IMP(import)进口 EXP(export)出口
33

MAX (maximum)最大的、最大限度的 MIN (minimum)最小的,最低限度 M 或 MED (medium)中等,中级的 M/V(merchant vessel)商船 S.S(steamship)船运 MT 或 M/T(metric ton)公吨 DOC (document)文件、单据 INT(international)国际的 P/L (packing list)装箱单、明细表 INV (invoice)发票 PCT (percent)百分比 REF (reference)参考、查价 EMS (express mail special)特快传递 STL.(style)式样、款式、类型 T 或 LTX 或 TX(telex)电传 RMB(renminbi)人民币 S/M (shipping marks)装船标记 PR 或 PRC(price) 价格 PUR (purchase)购买、购货 S/C(sales contract)销售确认书 L/C (letter of credit)信用证 B/L (bill of lading)提单 FOB (free on board)离岸价 CIF (cost,insurance&freight)成本、保险加运费价 GMO (genetically modified organism)转基因组织 CAGA (compound annual growth average)年复合增长率

ANER (Asia North America Eastbound Rate) 亚洲北美东行运费协定 B/L (Bill of Lading) 海运提单 B/R (Buying Rate) 买价
34

BAF (Bunker Adjustment Factor) 燃油附加费 C&F (Cost and Freight) 成本加海运费 C.C (Collect) 运费到付 C.O (certificate of origin) 一般原产地证 C.S.C (Container Service Charge) 货柜服务费 C.T.D.(Combined Transport documents) 多式联运单据 C.Y. (Container Yard) 货柜场 C/D (customs declaration) 报关单 C/O (Certificate of Origin) 产地证 CAF (Currency Adjustment Factor) 货币汇率附加费 Cargo Receipt 承运货物收据 Cash with Order 订单付款 CBM (cubic metre) 立方米、立方公尺 CCPIT (China Council for the Promotion of International Trade) 中国对外贸易促进 委员会 CFR (Cost and Freight) 成本加运费 CFR Landed 成本加运费、卸货费 CFS (Container Freight Station) 散货仓库 CFS/CFS 散装交货(起点/终点) CFT (Cubic Feet)立方英尺 Charter Party B/L 租船提单 CHB (Customs House Broker) 报关行 CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight) 成本加保险费、运费 CIF Ex Ship? s Hold 成本加保险费、运费、舱底交接 CIF Landed 成本加保险费、运费、卸货费 CIF Liner Terms 成本加保险费、运费班轮条件 CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid To) 运费、保险费付至目的地 CIP (Carriage Insurance Paid to) 运费、保险费付至 COMM (Commodity) 商品 Commercial Draft 商业汇票 CPT (Carriage Paid To) 运费付至目的地 CTN/CTNS (carton/cartons) 纸箱 CTNR (Container) 柜子 D.P.V. (duty paid value) 完税价格 D/A (document Against Acceptance) 承兑交单 D/D (Remittance by Banker? s Demand Draft) 票汇 D/O,D.O. (Delivery Order) 到港通知、提货单 D/P (document Against Payment) 付款交单 D/P after Sight (document against payment after Sight) 远期付款交单 D/P Sight (documents against Payment at Sight) 即期付款交单 DAF (Delivered At Frontier) 边境交货 Damage Caused by Heating and Sweating 受热受潮险 DCP (freight or carriage paid to) 运费付至...价 DDC (Destination Delivery Charge) 目的港码头费
35

DDP (Delivered Duty Paid) 完税后交货 DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid) 未完税交货 Deductible 免赔额 defendant 被诉方 Deferred Payment Credit 延期付款信用证 Deferred Payment 延期付款 Demurrage (Despatch) Money 速遣费 DEQ (Delivered Ex Quay) 目的港码头交货 DES (Delivered Ex Ship) 目的港船上交货 DHL (DHL International Ltd.) 敦豪速递公司 DL/DLS (dollar/dollars) 美元 DOC (document) 文件、单据 Doc# (document Number) 文件号码 E/D (export declaration) 出口申报书 EA (each) 每个,各 EAT (estimated time of arrival) 预计到达时间 Economic Integration 经济一体化 EEC (European Economic Community) 欧洲经济共同体 EMP (European Main Ports) 欧洲主要港口 EMS (Express Mail Special) 特快专递 EPS (Equipment Position Surcharges) 设备位置附加费 EPZ (export processing zone) 出口加工区 ETCL (expected time of commencement of loading) 预计开始装货时间 ETD (estimated time of departure) 预计离港时间 ETFD (expected time of finishing discharging) 预计卸完时间 ETFL (expected time of finishing) 预计装完时间 EU (European Union) 欧盟 Ex (Work/ExFactory) 工厂交货 EXP(export) 出口 EXQ (ex quay) 码头交货价 EXS (ex ship) 目的港船上交货价 EXW (Ex Works) 工厂交货

FOB (free on board) 离岸价 C&F (cost and freight) 成本加运费价 CIF (cost, insurance and freight) 到岸价 F.P.A. (Free from Particular Average) 平安险 W.A. / W.P.A (With Average or With Particular Average) 水渍险 F.W.R.D. (Fresh Water Rain Damage) 淡水雨淋险
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贸易机构词汇 WTO (World Trade Organization) 世界贸易组织 IMF (International Monetary Fund) 国际货币基金组织 CTG (Council for Trade in Goods) 货币贸易理事会 EFTA (European Free Trade Association) 欧洲自由贸易 AFTA (ASEAN Free Trade Area) 东盟自由贸易区 JCCT (China-US Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade) 中美商贸联委会 NAFTA (North American Free Trade Area) 北美自由贸易区 UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) 联合国贸易与 发展会议 GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) 关贸总协定 RTA (Regional Trade Arrangements) 区域贸易安排 International Red Cross Committee(IRCC) 国际红十字委员会 United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia Pacific (ESCAP)联 合国亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 国际原子能机构 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)国际民用航空组织 International Labor Organization (ILO) 国际劳工组织 International Maritime Organization (IMO) 国际海事组织 International Telecommunication Union (ITU) 国际电信 International Financial Corporation 国际金融组织 Organization of American States (OAS) 美洲国家组织 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 联合国环境计划署 Universal Postal Union (UPU) 万国邮政 International Court of Justice (ICJ) 国际法庭 World Custom Union (WCU) 世界关税 World Health Organization (WHO) 世界卫生组织 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) 世界气象组织
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World Tourism Organization (WTO) 世界旅游组织 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 东南亚国家 International Olympic Committee (IOC) 国际奥林匹克委员会 Federation of International Football Association (FIFA) 国际足球联合会 United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 联合国粮食及农业 组织 United Nations Educational,Scientific,and Cultural Organization(UNESCO) 联 合国教育、科学及文化组织 IMF 国际货币基金组织 World Bank 世界银行 APEC 亚太经济合作组织 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Program 联合国贸易和 发展会议 UNDP 联合国开发计划署 United Nations peace-keeping Force 联合国维持和平部队 European Union 欧盟 North American Free Trade Zone 北美自由贸易区 OPEC 石油输出国组织 Asian Bank for Reconstruction and Development 亚洲复兴开发银行 WIPO 世界知识产权组织 UNEP 联合国环境开发署 WHO 世界卫生组织 NATO 北大西洋公约组织 S/M (shipping marks)装船标记 外贸新手,外贸知识,外贸英语,外贸报关,外 贸单 C&F(cost & freight)成本加运费价 T/T(telegraphic transfer)电汇 D/P(document against payment)付款交单 D/A (document against acceptance)承兑交单 C.O (certificate of origin)一般原产地证 G.S.P.(generalized system of preferences)普惠制 CTN/CTNS(carton/cartons)纸箱 PCE/PCS(piece/pieces)只、个、支等 DL/DLS(dollar/dollars)美元 MIN (minimum)最小的,最低限度 M 或 MED (medium)中等,中级的
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M/V(merchant vessel)商船 S.S(steamship)船运 MT 或 M/T(metric ton)公吨 DOC (document)文件、单据 INT(international)国际的 P/L (packing list)装箱单、明细表 INV (invoice)发票 PCT (percent)百分比 REF (reference)参考、查价 EMS (express mail special)特快传递 STL.(style)式样、款式、类型 T 或 LTX 或 TX(telex)电传 RMB(renminbi)人民币 S/M (shipping marks)装船标记 PR 或 PRC(price) 价格 PUR (purchase)购买、购货 S/C(sales contract)销售确认书 L/C (letter of credit)信用证 B/L (bill of lading)提单 FOB (free on board)离岸价 CIF (cost, insurance & freight)成本、保险加运费价 GMO (genetically modified organism)转基因组织 CAGA (compound annual growth average)年复合增长率 GNI (gross national income): 国民总收入,即指国民生产总值 GND (gross national demand): 国民总需求 GNE (gross national expenditure): 国民总支出 GCF (gross capital formation): 资本形成总额 GR (gross revenues): 总收入,总税收 B/L (bill of lading) 提单 P/L (packing list) 装箱单、明细表 INV (invoice) 发票 S/C (sales contract) 销售确认书 C.O (certificate of origin) 一般原产地证 C/D (customs declaration) 报关单 G.S.P.(generalized system of preferences) 普惠制 T/T (telegraphic transfer) 电汇 D/P (document against payment) 付款交单 D/A (document against acceptance) 承兑交单 CFR (cost and freight) 成本加运费价 L/C (letter of credit) 信用证 FOB (free on board) 离岸价 CIF (cost,insurance&freight) 含保险到岸价(成本、 保险加运费价 )
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W (with) 具有 w/o (without) 没有 IMP (import) 进口 EXP (export) 出口 MAX (maximum) 最大的、最大限度的 MIN (minimum) 最小的,最低限度 M 或 MED (medium) 中等,中级的 -----------------------------------------------INT (international) 国际的 PUR (purchase) 购买、购货 REF (reference) 参考、查价 PR 或 PRC (price) 价格 STL.(style)式样、款式、类型 M/V (merchant vessel) 商船 S.S (steamship) 船运 S/M (shipping marks) 装船标记 DOC (document) 文件、单据 EMS (Express mail special) 特快传递 FAC (facsimile) 传真 T 或 LTX 或 TX (telex) DL/DLS (dollar/dollars) 美元 RMB (renminbi) 人民币 WT (weight) 重量 G.W.(gross weight) 毛重 N.W.(net weight) 净重 MT 或 M/T(metric ton) 公吨 EA (each) 每个,各 PCE/PCS (piece/pieces) 只、个、支等 DOZ/DZ (dozen) 一打 PKG (package) 一包,一捆,一扎,一件等 PCT (percent) 百分比 CTN/CTNS (carton/cartons) 纸箱 ATM (Automated Teller Machine) 自动取款(出纳)机 a.a.r against all risks 全险 a/c account 帐目 A/C account current 往来帐目 acc acceptance;accepted 承兑;已承兑 a.g.b a good brand 任何名牌 a/o account of 记入…帐目 a.p. additional premium 附加保险 a.r. all risks 全险 A/S;acc/s account sales 售货清单 av;A/V average 平均数
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ABC (control system)存货控制系统 AFL 美国劳工联合会 AFL---CIO 劳联----产联 A/R=account receivable 待收款(销售后,记账以后收取。 ) A/P=account payable 代付费(花费后记账,以后付费。 ) APEC=Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation 亚太经济合作组织。 BLUE(best unbiased estimator)最佳线性无偏差估计式 BB bill book 出纳簿 B/D bank draft 银行汇票 BD. bond 债券 bds. boards 董事会 B/E bill of exchange 汇票 bk. bank book 帐簿 bkg. banking 银行业 B/L bill of lading 提货单 B.P.B bank post bill 银行汇票 BR bank rate 银行贴现率 B/R;b.r. bill receivable 应收票据 B.S;b.s. balance sheet 资产负债表 bt bought 购入 B/L (bill of lading)提单 CFO Chief Finance Officer 首席财务主管 CBD (Central Business District) 中央商务区 C&F(cost & freight)成本加运费价 CAP (common agriculture policy )共同农业政策 CIF (cost insurance and freight)到岸价格 CUO (congress of industrial organization)产业工会联合会 COLA 生活费用调整 CPI Consumer Price Index 全国居民消费价格指数 C/A capital account 资本 CAD cash against document 凭单付款 CB cash book 现金簿 CD cash dividend 现金折扣 C.d. cum dividend 付股息报关单 C and D collection and delivery 收款发货 C/F carried forward 转下页 C/D (customs declaration) 报关单 CH custom house 海关 c/l certificate insurance 保险证明书 C&L cost and insurance 保险费在内价 CIF cost,insurance and freight 到岸价 CIF ( cost, insurance & freight)成本、保险加运费价 GMO (genetically modified organism)转基因组织
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CAGA ( compound annual growth average)年复合增长率 C.O.T change over to 转入 COD cash on delivery 货到付款 CWO cash with order 订货即付款 COMECON 经互会 C.O (certificate of origin)一般原产地证 G.S.P.(generalized system of preferences)普惠制 CTN/CTNS(carton/cartons)纸箱 CEA (council of economic advisers)经济顾问委员会 CPRS 中央政策评议组 CSO 中央局 C.O (certificate of origin)一般原产地证 CR=credit 贷方,债主 D/P(document against payment)付款交单 D/A (document against acceptance)承兑交单 DR=debt 借贷方 DL/DLS(dollar/dollars)美元 DOZ/DZ(dozen)一打 DCF 折现的现金流量 D/P(document against payment)付款交单 D/A (document against acceptance)承兑交单 D/P(document against payment)付款交单 D/A (document against acceptance)承兑交单 D/C. deviation 贴现 ECSC 欧洲煤钢联营 EVA Economic Value Added 经济增加值,指在扣除产生利润而投资的资本的 成本之后所剩下的利润 ECU 欧洲货币单位 EMS (express mail special)特快传递 FAC(facsimile)传真 f.i.t. free of income tax 免所得税 FAC(facsimile)传真 FOB (free on board)离岸价 FOB free on board 离岸价格 FRB=Federal Reserve Bank 联邦储备银行 G.W.(gross weight)毛重 GDP (Gross Domestic Product) 国内生产总值 GNP (Gross National Product) 国民生产总值 G.S.P.(generalized system of preferences)普惠制 H-ZH Hp horse power 马力 h.p.n. horse power nominal 标称马力 IB invoice book 发票簿 I/L import license 进口许可证
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IOU I owe you 借据,欠条 IBM (International Business Machines)国际商用机器公司 IBRD (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) 国际复兴开发银行 ICA (International Cooperative Alliance)国际合作社 IC (integrated circuit)集成电路 ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission)美国州际商业委员会 ICC (international chamber of commerce) 国际商会 ICFC (industrial and commercial finance corporation)工商业金融公司 IDA (International Development Association)国际开发协会 ILO (International Labour Organization)国际劳工组织 IMF (International Monetary fund)国际货币基金组织 INV (invoice)发票 ITO 国际货贸组织 L/C letter of credit 信用证 led. ledger 总帐簿 LIP life insurance policy 人寿保险单 LS locus sigil(place of seal) 盖印处 LD (limited)有限公司 LDCs (less developed countries)发展中国家 JES mark 日本技术规格 J/A (joint account) 共同帐户 MAX (maximum)最大的、最大限度的 MIN (minimum)最小的,最低限度 M 或 MED (medium)中等,中级的 M/V(merchant vessel)商船 MT 或 M/T(metric ton)公吨 MV =PT 货币数量理论的交易方程 MBA =Master of Business Administration 工商管理硕士 M/C marginal credit 限界信贷 M/D memorandum of deposit 存款单 NEP =New Economic Policy 新经济政策 N/I=net income 纯收入 N/D no dated 未注明日期 n/f.n.f no funds 无款 NM no mark 无商标;无标志 NP notary public 公证人 OAPEC=Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries 阿拉伯石油输出国组织 OASDHI =old age survivors, disability and hospital insurance 社会保险 OECD =Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 经济合作与发展 阻止 PA private account 私人帐户
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P/C price current p.c.b petty cash book P/N promissory note PO postal order POB post office box R/D refer to drawer(banking) re. with referece to recd. received r.i. reinsurance r.l receipt for a loan RSVP reply please REF (reference)参考、查价 STL.(style)式样、款式、类型 RMB(renminbi)人民币 S/M (shipping marks)装船标记 S/C(sales contract)销售确认书

时价表 零用现金簿 期票 汇票 邮政信箱 请与出票接洽 关于 收到 再保险 借据;欠条 候复

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政治外交词汇与固定搭配
1 政治类 Politics “Agriculture, Countryside and Farmer” issues 三农问题 "bringing in" and "going out" “ 引进来 ” 和 “ 走出去 ” 政策 "eight do's" and "eight don'ts" “八个坚持、八个反 对” Four Cardinal Principles 四项基本原则 Four modernizations 四个现代化(农、工、国防、 科技) "one china, one Taiwan" “一中一台” “one country, two systems” “一国两制” “south -south cooperation” “南南合作” "Taiwan independence" “台湾独立” "two Chinas" “两个中国” “Three Represents” “三个代表” three direct links (mail, air and shipping services and trade) (两岸)直接三通 the eight-point proposal 八项主张 the five principles of peaceful coexistence 和平共处五项原则 the fourth plenary session 四中全会 the ninth five-year plan (1996-2000) “九五”计划 the tenth five-year plan (2001-2005) “十五”计划 the third plenary session of the eleventh central committee 十一届三中全会 the three major historical tasks 三大历史任务 the three Sino-Us joint communiqué s 《中美三个联合公报》 three favorables 三个有利于 16th party congress 十六大 a well-off standard 小康水平 a well-off society 小康社会 advance the development of the western region 推进西部大开发 advances with the times 与时代发展同步伐 at the proper time and to an appropriate degree 适时适度 attempts to split the country 各种分裂图谋 blazing new trails in a pioneering spirit 开拓创新 build a well-off society in an all-round way 全面建设小康社会 building a moderately prosperous society in all respects 全面建设小康社 会 build a clean and honest government 廉政建设 build a conservation-minded society 建设(资源)节约 型社会 china's cross-century development 我国的跨世纪发
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展 china's international standing china's overall national strength citizens' participation in political affairs civic duty civil rights / civil liberties civil servants creativity, cohesion and fighting capacity 力 cross-straits negotiations cross-straits relations crucial historical juncture democratic decision-making democratic elections democratic management Democratic Progressive Party democratic supervision Deng Xiaoping theory deputy to the National People's Congress extensive and profound extravagance and waste falsification family planning fight against "Taiwan Independence" good-neighborly relationship government functions government institutions government intervention government organs (have) a good government and a united people historic breakthrough hold high the great banner of Deng Xiaoping theory 论伟大旗帜 honesty honesty and high efficiency Hong Kong And Macao special administrative regions 行政区 ideological and moral education intellectuals intensify functions international organizations international situation iron out differences keep pace with the times
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我国的国际地位 我国综合国力 公民政治参与 公民职责 公民权利、 自由 公务员 创造力、凝聚力和战斗 两岸谈判 两岸关系 重大历史关头 民主决策 民主选举 民主管理 民进党 民主监督 邓小平理论 全国人大代表 博大精深 铺张浪费 弄虚作假 计划生育 反对“台独” 睦邻友好 政府职能 政府机构 政府干预 政府机构 政通人和 历史性突破 高举邓小平理 诚实守信 廉洁高效 香港、澳门特别 思想道德建设 知识分子 强化功能 国际性组织 国际形势 化解歧见 与时俱进

kingpin long-term peace and order long-term social stability and solidarity Marxism Leninism mass organizations masters of the country material and cultural needs of the people 要 material and spiritual civilization 神文明 media and publicity work moral kingpin morality, intelligence, physique and art national rejuvenation through science and education national reunification national spirit NPC member our compatriots in Taiwan our compatriots in the Hong Kong SAR 区同胞 our compatriots in the Macao SAR 胞 patriots from all walks of life patriotic democratic personages patriotic united front peace, justice and progress 进步 problems facing agriculture, rural areas and farmers 农民问题 reform of rural taxes and administrative charges repeal taxes on special agricultural products 税 to alleviate rural poverty through development proceed from our national conditions 发 promote all-round social progress 步 realm of ideology 域 reform and opening-up reform, development and stability rule (run) the country by law rule (run) the country by virtue running the party, state and army
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支撑 长治久安 长期社会安定团结 马克思列宁主义 人民团体 当家作主 人民的物质文化需 物质文明和精 宣传舆论工作 精神支撑 德智体美 科教兴国 祖国统一 民族精神 人大代表 台湾同胞 香港特别行政 澳门特别行政区同 各界爱国人士 爱国民主人士 爱国统一战线 和平,正义, 农业、农村和 农村税费改革 取消农业特产 农村扶贫开发 从我国国情出 促进社会全面进 意识形态领 改革开放 改革发展稳定 依法治国 以德治国 治党治国治

军 survival and development 生存和发展 sustainable development 可持续发展 system of regional ethnic autonomy 民族区域自治制 度 the Chinese people of all ethnic groups 全国各族人民 the great cause of national reunification 祖国统一大 业 the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation 中华民族的伟 大复兴 the provincial and municipal (prefectural) governments 省、市(地)两 级地方政府 the return of Hong Kong And Macao to the motherland 香港和澳门回 归祖国 the smooth transition of power 平稳过渡 two conferences (NPC and CPPCC) 两会(人大,政协) unified, open, competitive and orderly 统一、开放、竞争、 有序 unprecedented difficulties and pressure 空前巨大的困难和 压力 vigilance against risks 抗风险能力 vitality, creativity and cohesion of a nation 民族的生命力、创造力 和凝聚力 win -win co-operation 强强联手 with a long history behind it 源远流长 爱国统一战线 patriotic united front 安理会 Security Council 安居工程 Comfortable Housing Project 霸权主义 hegemonism 拜金主义 money worship 闭关政策 closed-door policy 北约 NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) 奔小康 strive for a relatively comfortable life 不正之风 bad (harmful) practice unhealthy tendency 不遗余力 spare no effort go all out do ones best 不承诺放弃使用武器 not undertake to renounce the use of force 不打不成交 "No discord, no concord. "
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不分上下的总统选举结果 the neck-and-neck presidential election result 不记名投票 secret ballot 不结盟运动 non-aligned movement 布雷顿森林体系 Breton Woods system 部长级会议 ministerial meeting 采取措施前 ex ante 采取措施后 ex post 采取高姿态 show magnanimity 参政、 议政 participate in the management of State affairs 参拜靖国神社 visit to the Yasukuni war shrine 差额投票 differential voting 差额选举 competitive election 财政收入 fiscal revenue 筹备委员会 preparatory committee 常务理事 executive member of the council 长期共存、互相监督、肝胆相照、荣辱与共 "Long-term coexistence, mutual supervision, sincere treatment with each other and the sharing of weal or woe 唱高调 mouth high-sounding words 彻头彻尾的反动政治势力 an out and out reactionary political force "东突"恐怖分子 East Turkistan terrorist (解决争端)调查结果 findings 答谢宴会 return banquet 打破僵局 break the deadlock 盗用公款 embezzlement 电视会议 video conference 电话会议 teleconference 邓小平外交思想 Deng Xiaoping’s diplomatic thoughts 单边主义 unilateralism 党群关系 Party-masses relationship 党政机关 Party and government organizations 地区差异 regional disparity 地方保护主义 regional protectionism 多党合作制 multi-party co-operation in exercising State power 杜鲁门主义 Truman Doctrine 东南亚国家 ASEAN (Association of South-East Asian Nations 访谈式竞选 (候选人在电视访谈节目中亮相进行的竞选) talk-show campaign 放下架子 to relinquish haughty airs to get off ones high horse throw
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off ones airs 扶贫 发展是硬道理

发展不平衡 法治国家 法制国家 反腐倡廉 government 干部队伍革命化、年轻化、知识化、专业化 " Make the ranks of cadres more revolutionary, younger in average age, better educated and professionally more competent 港人治港 Hong Kong people administering Hong Kong 根本政治制度 fundamental political system 更快、更高、更强 Citius, Altius, Fortius 高层次、全方位的对话 high-level and all-directional dialogue 高度自治 high degree of autonomy 国泰民安 The country flourishes and people live in peace 国际劳工组织 ILO (International Labor Organization) 国际惯例 international common practice 国际化战略 internationalization strategy 国家质量技术监督局 the State Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision 公正、公平、公开 "just, fair and open" 公款吃喝 recreational activities using public funds 共同富裕 common prosperity 共产党领 导下的 多党 合作与政 治协商 multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of Communist Party 宏观调控 macro-control 和平演变 peaceful evolution 黑社会 Mafia-style organizations gangland 海湾战争综合症 the complexities of the Gulf War 换届选举 election at expiration of office term 基本路线要管一百年 The basic line must be followed unswervingly for a very long time to come. 基本国情 fundamental realities of the country 基层民主 democracy at the grassroots level 基层组织 organizations at the grass-roots level 基地组织 al-Qaeda group 坚持统一,反对分裂,增加了解,化解歧见 "persist in reunification, oppose separation, increase understanding and iron out differences
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poverty alleviation Development is of overriding importance. Development is the absolute need. disparate development a country under the rule of law a state with an adequate legal system combat corruption and build a clean

记者招待会 press conference 监督部门 watchdog 加强舆论监督 ensure that the correct orientation is maintained in public opinion 解放生产力 emancipate the productive forces 解放思想、实事求是的思想路线 ideological line of emancipating the mind and seeking truth from facts 决策性机构 policy-making body 精简机构 streamline government organs 具有中国特色的 with Chinese characteristics 跨越式发展 great-leap-forward development 可持续发展战略 strategy of sustainable development 抗美援朝战争 War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea 绿色奥运 , 科技奥运 , 人文奥运 green, high-tech and people friendly Olympic Games 轮值主席 chairman on duty 廉政、勤政、务实、高效政府 "an honest, diligent, pragmatic and efficient government " 廉政公署 Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) 廉政建设 construction of a clean and honest administration 廉洁奉公,以正治国 " (of an official) clean and devoted, and govern the state with his own example of uprightness " 两手抓,两手都要硬 grasp both links at the same time and attach sufficient importance to both 两个对等的政治实体 two equal political entities 民主党派、工商联与无党派人士 "non-Communist parties, federations of industry and commerce, personages without party affiliation " 民主集中制 democratic centralis 民族区域自治 regional autonomy of ethnic minorities 民族意识 national consciousness 民族优越感 ethnocentrism 民族凝聚力 national cohesion 麦克马洪线 McMahon Line 门罗主义 Monroe Doctrine 门户开放政策 open-door policy 扭转局面 "reverse the tide, turn the table" 女权运动 movement for women’s rights 男权主义思想 male chauvinism 南水北调工程 divert water from the south to the north project 南南合作 South-South cooperation
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南北对话 North-South dialogue 欧亚大陆桥 Eurasia Land Bridge 欧元 Euro 欧洲委员会 European Commission 欧洲共同体 European Communities (EC) 欧洲货币 Euro-currency 欧洲货币一体化 European monetary integration 欧洲自由贸易 EFTA (European Free Trade Association) 配套政策 supporting policies 普选制 general election system 贫富悬殊 polarization of rich and poor 平等、互利、互相尊重主权和领土完整 equality,mutual benefit,mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity 平等互利原则 principle of equality and mutual benefit 平等互利、讲求实效、形式多样、共同发展的方针 Pursuing practical results, adopting various ways and seeking common development/ the principle of equality, mutual benefit, efficiency, diversity and mutual development 平均主义 equalitarianism 勤政廉政建设 keep government functionaries honest and industrious 侨胞 countrymen residing abroad 亲民党 People First Party 全面禁止和彻底销毁核武器 complete prohibition and thorough destruction nuclear weapons 全方位、多层次、宽领域的对外开放格局 all-dimensional, multitiered and wide-ranging opening pattern 全国人民代表大会 NPC (National Peoples Congress) 人大代表 NPC member (西方的)三权分立 separation of executive, legislative, and judicial powers 社会效益 social effect/ results/ benefit 社会热点问题 hot spots of society 社会保障制度 social security system 申办奥运会 bid for the Olympic Games 上海合作组织 Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) 少数服从多数、下级服从上级、局部服从全体、全党服从中央 "the minority is subordinate to the majority, the lower level to the higher level, the part to the whole and the entire membership of the Party to the Central Committee " 三通 "three direct links of trade, mail, and air and shipping services across the Taiwan Straits " 三通一平 "three supplies and one leveling supply of water, electricity and road and leveled ground (conditions ready for further economic development)" 三峡工程 Three Gorges Project 三八线 38th Parallel 三步走战略 the three-step development strategy 三大作风 the Party’s three important styles of work (integrating theory with practice,
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forging close links with the masses and practicing self-criticism) 三个有利于 three favorables (whether it promotes the growth of the productive forces in a socialist society, increases the overall strength of the socialist state and raises the peoples living standards 三 个 代 表 three represents theory (The Party should always represent the development needs of Chinas advanced social productive forces, always represent the onward direction of Chinas advanced culture, and always represent the fundamental interests of the largest member of the Chinese people.) 三讲教育 (讲学习、 讲政治、 讲正气) three emphases education (to stress theoretical study, political awareness and good conduct) 三自原则 principles of self-administration, self-support and self-propagation 四项基本原则 "the Four Cardinal Principles of adherence to the socialist road, the peoples democratic dictatorship, the leadership of the Communist Party of China, and Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought" 四有新人 "new generation of people with lofty ideals, moral integrity, good education and a strong sense of discipline" 四个现代化 four modernizations (the modernization of agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology 施政纲领 administrative program 双刃剑 double-edged sword 双赢局面 win-win situation 双重国籍 dual nationality 刹住大吃大喝、公费旅游、铺张浪费的奢侈之风 put a stop to extravagance and waste (wining and dining of official guests,touring the country at public expenses) 实现中华民族伟大复兴 bring about a great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation 实践是检验真理的唯一标准 Practice is the sole criterion for testing truth 天时,地利,人和 good timing, geographical convenience and good human relations 统一战线 united front 统筹安排 comprehensive arrangement 统筹兼顾 make overall plans and take all factors into consideration overall planning and all-round consideration 歪风邪气 unhealthy practices and evil phenomena 稳定压倒一切 Maintaining stability is of top priority 维护人权和不断改善人权状况 safeguard human rights and steadily improve the human rights situation 形式主义 ormalism 小康之家 well-off family comfortably-off family 香港特别行政区 Hong Kong Special Administrative Region(HKSAR) 吸取世界文明成果 assimilate the achievements of civilizations the world over 西气东输 transmit the natural gas from the western areas to East China West-East natural gas transmission project 西部大开发 Western Development 西电东送 transmit the electricity from the western areas to East China West-East electricity transmission project
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眼前利益服从长远利益,局部利益服从整体利益,个人和集体利益服从国家利益 subordinate immediate interests to long-term interests, partial interests to overall interests and the interests of individuals and collectives to those of the state 忧患意识 awareness of unexpected development being prepared for unexpected development being prepared for any eventualities 有理想、有道德、有文化、有纪律 "with lofty ideals, integrity, knowledge and a strong sense of discipline 有战斗力、 有说服力、 有吸引力的思想工作队伍 a contingent of militant ideological workers able to persuade and act as a magnet for others 有中国特色的社会主义民主政治 a socialist democracy with Chinese characteristics 有中国特色的社会主义道路 road of socialism with Chinese characteristics 有法可依,有法必依,执法必严,违法必究 There must be laws to go by, the laws must be observed and strictly enforced, and lawbreakers must be prosecuted 与时俱进 advance with times 以身作则 , 廉洁奉公 set a good example and perform duties honestly 以权谋私 abuse of power for personal gains 以经济建设为中心 focusing on the central task of economic construction 圆桌会议 round-table conference 硬道理 "absolute principle, top priority 远景规划 perspective long-term plan 一方有难,八方支援 When disaster struck, help came from all sides. 一个中心,两个基本点 one central task, two basic points 一国两制 "One country, two systems 振兴中华 make China powerful and strong revitalize the Chinese nation 政治协商、民主监督、参政议政 exercise political consultation and democratic supervision and participate in deliberating and administration of state affairs 政治体制改革 political restructuring 政府职能转变 transform/shift the government functions 中日友好四项原则: 和平友好,平等互利,互相信赖,长期稳定 The four principles of Sino-Japanese friendship: Peace and friendship, equality and mutual benefit, mutual trust, and long-term stability 中央国家机关 Chinas State organs 重点发展 prioritize 遵纪守法、廉洁奉公 observe the relevant code of conduct and the law and honestly perform ones official duties 综合国力 comprehensive national strength 抓大放小 to invigorate large enterprises while relaxing control over small ones focus on the restructuring of major enterprises and leave minor ones to fend for themselves 政治思想教育 Political and ideological education

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思想政治工作 共产主义道德品质 中共中央 of China 国务院开发研究中心 Council 自觉与党中央保持一致 跨世纪领导干部 领导干部要讲政治 领导干部要讲学习 of learning 领导干部要讲正气 官僚主义工作作风 相互包庇 改革的步子更大些 政治民主化 居委会 民政部门 解放思想 在官方的监督下 地方保护主义 行贿 索贿 受礼 反对贪污受贿

Political and ideological work Communist ethics The Central Committee of the Communist Party

The Development Research Center of the State

To conscientiously be in line with the Party center Cross-century leadership Leading cadres should be politically minded Leading cadres should highlight the importance

Leading cadres should adhere to moral integrity Working styles of bureaucracy Cover each other’s demerits Take bolder and wider steps in reform Political democratization Neighborhood committee The ministry of civil affairs Emancipate the mind Under official surveillance Regional protectionism Practice bribery Demand briberies from Receive gifts To fight against corruption and bribery
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走过场

Make it a mere ceremony/formality

居功自傲 To pride oneself on past achievements/become conceited due to one’s merits 唯利是图 血洗耻辱 德才兼备 integrity 道德准则 抓住时机 蔚然成风 合法权益 廉洁自律 惩治腐败 政治腐败 腐化堕落 生活腐化 推卸责任 扫黄运动 以权谋私 权钱交易 违法乱纪 侵吞公款 公款出国旅游 引起公愤 Profit-motivated/profit seeking To wipe out the disgrace With/showing both professional ability and political

Ethical code Seize the right/current opportunity To become a common practice Lawful rights and interests To perform one’s duty honestly and faithfully To combat corruption Political corrosion/degeneration Morally degenerate Lead a lavish and dissolute/dissipated life The shift responsibilities to others An anti-pornography campaign To abuse one’s power for personal interests To trade power for money Violate laws and disciplines Embezzlement of public funds Sightseeing tours abroad on public funds To provoke popular indignation

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拉关系 走后门 托人情 找后台 嫉贤妒能 拖拉的工作作风 提高…意识 暂行条例 留党察看 免除党内职务 主权 香港总督 行政长官 各界代表 购买军火 扩军备战 军事挑衅 历史遗留问题 保证顺利回归

Try to establish a rapport with sb. To get in by the back door Ask an influential figure to help arrange sth. Seek back stage boss To be jealous and envious of capable persons Tardy and dilatory working style To heighten one’s awareness of Interim regulations To remain on probation within the party Removal from posts in the party Sovereignty Governor of Hong Kong Chief executive Representative personages of various circles To purchase/order ammunitions Arms race Military provocation Questions left over from past history To guarantee/ensure the smooth return of

我们神圣的领土台湾回归祖国的怀抱 The return of our sacred territory, Taiwan to the embrace of the motherland 机构臃肿 人浮于事 任人唯贤 Overstaffed government organization Have more hands than needed To appoint people on their merits
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劳动局 劳动部 人事处 民主改革 中国问题专家 加强行政管理 办理审批程序 国务院主管部门 Council 中华全国总工会 世界知识产权组织 国家海洋局 国家海洋公园 交通部 委员长 副委员长 国务院 总理 国务委员 中央委员会 领事馆 办公厅 秘书处 民族委员会 法律委员会 财务经济委员会 外事委员会 内务司法委员会 华侨委员会 法制委员会 特定问题委员会 宪法修改委员会

Labor bureau The ministry of labor The personnel division Democratic reform China expert Strengthen administrative management To go through all the procedures of approval The competent/incumbent department of the State

All-China Federation of Trade Unions World Intellectual Property Organization The State Oceanographic Administration National marine park The Ministry of Transportation Chairman Vice Chairpersons State Council Premier State Councilors Central Committee Consulate General Office Secretariat Ethnic Affairs Committee Law Committee Finance Affairs Committee Foreign and Economy Committee Committee for Internal and Judicial Affairs Overseas Chinese Affairs Committee Commission of Legislative Affairs Committee of Inquiry into Special Questions Committee for Revision of the Constitution
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中央军事委员会 最高人民法院 最高人民检察院 国务院部委 国防部 国家发展计划委员 国家经济贸易委员会 教育部 科学技术部 公安部 国家安全部 监察部 劳动和社会保障部 国土资源部 信息产业部 国家计划生育委员会 国家审计署 国务院办事机构 国务院办公厅 法制办公厅 国务院研究室 新闻办公室 参政议政: 初步建立: 官僚主义作风: 国际局势风云变幻: 调动积极性: 居安思危: of peace 弘扬: 顾全大局: 化解歧见: 朝气蓬勃、奋发有为的领导层: 先发制人战略: 勇于变革、勇于创新 永不僵化、永不停滞

Central Military Commission Supreme People’s Court Supreme People’s Procuratorate Ministries and Commissions Directly under the State Council Ministry of National Defense State Development Planning Commission State Economic and Trade Commission Ministry of Education Ministry of Science and Technology Ministry of Public Security Ministry of State Security Ministry of Supervision Ministry of Labor and Social Security Ministry of Land and Resources Ministry of Information Industry State Family Planning Commission State Auditing Administration Offices under that State Council General Office of the State Council Office of Legislative Affairs Research Office of the State Council Information Office Participation in and deliberation of state affairs Take shape initially The bureaucratic style of work A highly volatile international situation mobilize the initiative stay prepared against adversities in times

carry forward bear in mind the overall interests iron out difference energetic and promising leadership preemptive strategy to make bold changes and innovations to stay away from rigidity or stagnation
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不为任何风险所惧 to fear no risks 封闭或半封闭的国家 closed or semi-closed state 新时期最突出的标志是与时俱进 Keeping up with the times is the most prominent hallmark in the new period 人大代表依法行使职权 deputies to people's congresses exercise their functions and powers in accordance with the law 密切人大代表同人民的联系 deputies to people's congresses maintain close ties with the general public 民主集中制 democratic centralism 完善候选人提名制 to improve the system for nominating candidates 改善民主制度 improve institutions for democracy 民主选举 democratic election 保障人民的知情权、参与权、表达权和监督权 to guarantee the people's rights to be informed, to participate, to be heard and to oversee 扩大党内民主 to expand intra-Party democracy 发展人民民主 to develop people's democracy 提高党内事物透明度 to increase transparency in Party affairs 反 对 、 阻 止 个 人 或 少 数 人 的 武 断 决 策 to oppose and prevent arbitrary decision-making by an individual or a minority of people 强化反腐斗争 intensify anti-graft fight 腐败官员 corrupt officials 反腐败 crack down on corruption 长期、复杂而艰巨的斗争 a protracted, complicated and arduous battle 标本兼治 address both the symptoms and root cause 高官 high-ranking official 领导岗位 leading positions 党外人士 non-Communists 无党派人士 person with no political affiliation 多 党 合 作 及 政 治 协 商 制 度 system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation 扩大民主、保证人民当家作主 to expand the people's democracy and ensure that they are masters of the country 科学及民主决策 scientific and democratic decision-making 公众听证会 public hearings 行使民主权利 exercise democratic rights “自 我管理、自我服务、自我教育、自我监督 ” practice self-management, self-service, self-education and self- oversight 各级党组织 Party organizations at all levels 维护宪法和法律的尊严 to uphold the authority of the Constitution and laws 加快推进政企分开、 政资分开、 政事分开、 政府与市场中介组织分开 to accelerate the separation of the functions of the government from those of enterprises, state assets management authorities, public institutions and market-based intermediaries
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减少和规范行政审批 to reduce the number of matters requiring administrative examination and approval and standardize such procedures 制约及监督机制 mechanism of restraint and supervision “让权力在阳光下运行” power must be exercised in the sunshine “台独”势力 the forces of "Taiwan independence 分裂活动 secessionist activities 维护中国的主权和领土完整 to safeguard China's sovereignty and territorial unity 构建两岸关系和平发展框架 to construct a framework for peaceful development of cross-Straits relations 合法权益 legitimate rights and interests 两岸敌对状态 the state of hostility across the Taiwan Straits 开创两岸关系和平发展新局面 to usher in a new phase of peaceful development 扩大国内需求 to boost domestic demand 劳动者素质提高 improvement in the quality of work force 霸权主义强权政治 hegemonism and power politics 和平解决国际争端和热点问题 peaceful settlement of international disputes and hotspot issues 防御性的国防政策 a national defense policy that is defensive in nature 永远不称霸 never seek hegemony 永远不搞扩张 never engage in expansion 奉行防御性的国防政策 to follow a national defense policy that is defensive in nature 反对各种形式的霸权主义和强权政治 to oppose all forms of hegemonism and power politics 反对一切形式的恐怖主义 to oppose terrorism in any form 推动国际和地区安全合作 to promote international and regional security cooperation 推进贸易和投资自由化便利化 to advance the liberalization and facilitation of trade and financial system 通过磋商协作妥善处理经贸摩擦 to properly resolve economic and trade frictions through consultation and collaboration “损人利己” to seek benefits for itself at the expense of other countries or shift its troubles onto others 缩小南北差距 to narrow the North-South gap 适应新的发展要求 to meet new requirements of development 总结我国发展实践 analyzing China's own practice 借鉴国外发展经验 drawing on the experience of other countries in development 发展模式 mode of growth 社会主义市场经济 socialist market economy 缩 小 城 乡 地 区 间 发 展 差 距 narrow the urban-rural and interregional gaps in development 以人为本 putting people first
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构建社会主义和谐社会 to build a harmonious socialist society 增强中国的独立创新能力 to enhance China's capacity of independent innovation 创新型国家 innovative country 加大对独立创新的投入 to increase spending on independent innovation 突破制约经济社会发展的关键技术 to make breakthroughs in key technologies vital to economic and social development 确立国家创新体制 form a national innovation system 前沿科技 frontier technology 加快努力建设以市场为主导的科技创新机制 to step up efforts to establish a market-oriented system for technological innovation 加快转变经济发展方式 to accelerate transformation of the mode of economic development 推动产业结构优化升级 to promote upgrading of the industrial structure 统筹城乡发展 to balance urban and rural development 推进社会主义新农村建设 to push forward the building of a new socialist countryside 党的三代中央领导集体 three generations of central collective leadership of the CPC 工人阶级的先锋队 the vanguard of the working class 全心全意为人民服务、立党为公、执政为民 serve the people heart and soul, work for the public and assumes power for the people 主权国家 Sovereign state 专属经济区 Exclusive economic zone 维护国家独立和主权完整 To safeguard national independence and the integrity of sovereignty 用和平手段解决争端 To solve disputes by peaceful means 照顾现实情况 In consideration of the actual conditions 平等互利 Equality and mutual benefit 和平共处 Peaceful coexistence 求同存异 Seek common ground while shelving differences 互谅互让 Mutual understanding and mutual accommodation 强权政治 Power politics 切身利益 Immediate interests 保卫国家主权和民族资源 safeguard national sovereignty and national resources 不附带任何条件 never to attach any conditions 把自己的意志强加于人 impose one’s own will on others 对无核区承担义务 undertake obligations in respect of the nuclear-free zone 毫无根据的媒体报道 groundless media reports 抗美援朝战争 War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea 伸张正义,主持公道 adhere to principles and uphold justice 诉诸武力或以武力相威胁 resort to the use or threat of force 外交政策的基石 cornerstone of a country’s foreign policy 无中生有 make/create something out of nothing
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削减战略核武器会谈 strategic arms reduction talks (START) 用和平手段解决争端 solve disputes by peaceful means 公认的国际关系原则 generally-accepted principles of international relations 国际商会 International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) 国际关系的准则 norms governing international relations 国际日期变更线 International Date Line (IDL) 冷静观察,沉着应对 observe and cope with the situation cool-headedly 公正合理的国际政治经济新秩序 a fair and rational new international political and economic order 捍卫国家主权,领土完整和民族尊严 safeguard national sovereignty , territorial integrity , and national dignity 维护人权和不断改善人权状况 safeguard human rights and steadily improve the human rights situation letter of appointment 委任书 exequatur 许可证书 拨乱反正 bring order out of chaos/ set things right 中华民族的伟大复兴 the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. 党在社会主义初级阶段的基本理论、基本路线、基本纲领 the basic theory, line and program of our Party in the primary stage of socialism. 马克思主义基本原理同中国具体实际相结合 the fundamental principles of Marxism with the specific situation in China. 加强和改进党的建设,不断增强党的创造力、凝聚力和战斗力,永葆党的生机与 活力 strengthen and improve Party building, continuously enhance the creativity, rallying power and combat capability of the Party, and always maintain its vigor and vitality. 党的理论、路线、纲领、方针、政策 Party's theory, line, program, principles and policies 生产力、生产关系、经济基础、上层建筑 productive force, relation of production, economic base, superstructure constitute. 科学技术是第一生产力 Science and technology are the primary productive force. 自立意识、竞争意识、效率意识、民主法制意识和开拓创新意识 self-reliance, competition, efficiency, democracy, the legal system, and the pioneering and innovative spirit. 科教兴国战略 the strategy of invigorating the country through science and education. 公开、平等、竞争、择优 open, fair, competition, basis of merits. 自 重 、 自 省 、 自 警 、 自 励 self-discipline, self-examination, self-caution and self-motivation. 以权谋私、贪赃枉法、腐败分子 to abuse power for personal gains, take bribes or bend the law, corrupt elements. 四项基本原则 Four Cardinal Principles. “政治合格、军事过硬、作风优良、纪律严明、保障有力” qualified politically and competent militarily and that have a fine style of work, strict discipline and adequate logistic support.
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世界多极化、经济全球化 world multi-polarization and economic globalization 联合国宪章 UN Charter 开放攻坚,改革跟进,稳定保障,加快发展 open and storm fortification, reform and follow-up, stable and secure, speed up development. 两岸三地 China’s mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong 主张“一个中国,两岸对话,迅速三通” stand for “ one China, dialogues between the two sides of the Taiwan Straits and establish three direct links at an early date International Court of Justice 国际法院 General Assembly 联合国大会 Secretariat 秘书处 Office of the Secretary General 秘书长办公室 Office of Legal Affairs 法务局 Department of Conference Services 会议局 United Nation Conference on Trade and Development Secretariat 联合国贸易 开发事物局 Unite Nation Industrial Development Organization 联合国工业 开发机构 International Law Commission 国际法委员 会 United Nation s Commission on International Trade Law 国际贸易法 委员会 Enlarged Committee for Program and Coordination, ECPC 扩大计划调 整委员会 Economic and Social Council 经济社会理 事会 Statistical Commission 委员会 Population Commission 人口委员会 Commission for Social Development 社会开发委 员会 Commission on Human Rights 人权委员会 Special Committee on Peace-Keeping Operations 维护和平活动 特别委员会 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 联合国贸易开 发会议 Trade and Development Board, TDB 联合国开发委 员会 United Nations Development Program, UNDP 联合国开发 计划处 United Nation Children's Fund, UNICEF 联合国儿童 基金会 International Labor Organization, ILO 国际劳工组
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织 Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO 联合国粮食农 业组织 United Nation Educational Scientific and Culture Organization, UNESCO 联合国教育科学 文化组织 International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO 国际民间航 空组织 World Health Organization, WHO 世界卫生组 织 International Finance Corporation, IFC 国际金融组 织 International Monetary Fund, IMF 国际货币基 金会 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, IBRD 世界银行 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, GATT 有关关税贸易 一般规定 International Chamber of Commerce, ICC 国际工农商 会 Inter-Parliamentary Union, IPU 诸国会议同 盟 amendments to the Constitution government's work report 告 grass-roots supervision tax-for-fees reform approval rating caucus conservative Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) invalidate landslide victory 取得胜利 nominate petition platform senator the House of Representatives the ruling party insurgency 态 vigilant 宪法修正案 政府工作报 基层监督 费改税改革 支持率 核心会议 保守派 民进党 使无效 以绝对优势 提名 请愿,请愿书 政纲 参议员 众议院 执政党 叛乱, 叛乱状 警戒的;警惕的

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protectorate (被)保护国 asylum 庇护;避难 consultations 磋商 complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons 全面禁止和彻底 销毁核武器 两大历史性课题(提高党的执政能力和领导水平、提高拒腐防变和抵御风险能 力) the two major historic subjects of enhancing the abilities of administration and art of leadership and resisting corruption, guarding against degeneration and warding off risks. 再就业下岗人员 国有企业改革 政府机构改革 农村电网改造 退耕还林、还草工程 增收节支 expenditure re-employment of laid-off workers Reform of state- owned enterprises Reform of government institutions projects to upgrade rural power grids Grain for Green Project increase revenue and cut government

Political Bureau Central Commission for Discipline Inspection Military Commission of the Central Committee International Liaison Department United Front Work Department Propaganda Department State Economic and Trade Commission Ministry of Education Ministry of Science and Technology State Ethnic Affairs Commission Ministry of Public Security Ministry of Supervision Ministry of Civil Affairs Ministry of Justice Ministry of Finance Ministry of Personnel Ministry of Labor and Social Security Ministry of Land and Natural Resources State Family Planning Commission
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政治局 中央纪律检查委员会 中央军事委员会 对外联络部 统战部 宣传部 国家经济贸易委员会 教育部 科学技术部 国家民族事务委员会 公安部 监察部 民政部 司法部 财政部 人事部 劳动和社会保障部 国土资源部 国家计划生育委员会

Red Cross Society of China Headquarters of the General Staff

中国红十字会 总参谋部

Socialist concept of honor and disgrace— Eight Dos and Don'ts (Eight Honors & Eight Disgraces) Love, do not harm the motherland. Serve, don't disserve the people. Uphold science, don't be ignorant and unenlightened. Work hard, don't be lazy and hate work. Be united and help each other, don't gain benefits at the expense of others. Be honest and trustworthy, not profit-mongering at the expense of your values. Be disciplined and law-abiding instead of chaotic and lawless. Know plain living and hard struggle, do not wallow in luxuries and pleasures. 以热爱祖国为荣 以危害祖国为耻 以服务人民为荣 以背离人民为耻 以崇尚科学为荣 以愚昧无知为耻 以辛勤劳动为荣 以好逸恶劳为耻 以团结互助为荣 以损人利己为耻 以诚实守信为荣 以见利忘义为耻 以遵纪守法为荣 以违法乱纪为耻 以艰苦奋斗为荣 以骄奢淫逸为耻

2 外交类 Diplomacy 阁下 Your/His/Her Honor/ Excellency 总理 首相
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premier; chancellor prime minister

医院院长 总书记 总建筑师 总干事 总监 总领事 编审 副总经理 助理教授 主任医师 代理市长 执行主席 名誉校长 院士 欢迎/开幕/闭幕词 开/闭幕式 签字仪式 友好访问 宣布开/闭幕 热情友好的讲话 尊敬的 东道主 嘉宾 值此……之际 以……的名义 全体同仁 荣幸地 大洋彼岸 友好使者 增进理解 促进合作 符合……的共同利益 回顾过去 展望未来 提议为……干杯 拨冗光临 良辰佳时 金秋 祝……圆满成功 融洽的气氛 热情动人的讲话 无比盛情的款待 再叙旧情 结交新朋

president general secretary chief architect secretary-general/ commissioner chief inspector consul general senior editor deputy general manager assistant professor senior doctor acting mayor executive/presiding chairman honorary president academician welcome/opening/closing speech opening/closing ceremony signing ceremony goodwill visit declare…open/closed warm and friendly speech respectable/honorable host distinguished/honorable guests on the occasion of in the name of all my colleagues have the honor of (doing…) the other side of the ocean envoy of friendship promote understanding enhance/strengthen cooperation meet the common interest of looking back on; in retrospect look into the future propose a toast to take the time off one’s busy schedule a wonderful time golden autumn wish…a complete success a congenial atmosphere gracious and eloquent remarks incomparable hospitality renew one’s old friendships establish new contacts
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恋恋不舍 千言万语说不尽 前所未有的 剪彩 奠基礼 亲切的问候 兄弟般的 移交仪式 开工典礼 请?发言 相关问题 最新的调查结果 对…给予重视 领先技术 公使 自然遗产 共同关心的问题 良好的信誉 对?表示衷心的感谢 请?讲话 以掌声对?表示的最热烈的欢迎 主办单位 颁奖仪式 贺词 隆重举行 请?颁奖 取得圆满成功 全球庆典 宣布?结束 请全体起立,奏国歌 集体管理 把?列为重要内容 不放松工作 对?表示衷心祝贺 使?取得预期效果 授予?光荣称号 为?而奋斗 有关单位 与?比有差距 预祝?圆满成功 欢聚一堂 基础雄厚 留下最美好的印象 盛世

feel reluctant to part no words can fully express unprecedented cutting the ribbon at an opening ceremony foundation stone laying ceremony cordial greetings fraternal turning-over ceremony commencement ceremony Give the floor to Relevant issues Updated research result Attach the importance to Lead-edge technologies Minister Counselor Natural heritage Shared concern Well-deserved reputation express sincere gratitude to Let’s welcome to give a speech propose the warmest applause to sponsor the Award Ceremony greeting speech observe the grand opening of Let’s invite to present the award achieve complete ceremony global celebration ceremony declare the closing of Please rise for the national anthem. Collective stewardship place as the priority never neglect the work extend our sincere congratulations on attain the results expected confer honorable awards on strive for units concerned compared with ,there is still some way to go wish a complete success merrily gather solid foundation may you have a most pleasant impression the grand occasion
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祝愿在停留愉快 wish a pleasant stay 建立合作桥梁 build the bridge for cooperation 内容详实 substantial in content 相互尊重,求同存异,平等互利,优势互补,借鉴经验,拓展合作,立足当前, 着眼未来 respect each other, seek the common ground while putting aside difference, enjoy equality and mutual benefits, complement each other’s advantages, learn each other’s experience, expand the cooperation, stand from the present and look forward to the future 以此会议为契机 take the opportunity of this seminar 滞后 lag behind 转轨建制过程缓慢 the tr4ansition of mechanism is slow 总结经验教训 draw lessons from the past 达成共识 reach common ground 代表全体委员 on behalf of all the committee members 防患于未然 take preventative measures 随意聊聊 chat freely 担起责任 shoulder the responsibility 高层次、全方位的对话 high-level and all-directional dialogue 相比;比得上;敌得过 stack up (against with) 唤起舆论的注意 call out the media hounds 交换意见 exchange views 揭开序幕;开始 get the show started 聚集一堂 get together 口头详细说明 lay sth. out 使上涨;提高 jack up 损失惨重 suffer a heavy loss 特别提到 make a special mention of 消除误解 clear up misunderstandings 咬紧牙关硬撑 bite the bullet 以非官方身份 in an unofficial capacity 以私人身份 in a private capacity 杂项;其它事项 miscellaneous 逐字记录 verbatim record 做简要报告/介绍 make a brief report/account of 签字仪式 signing ceremony 促进合作 enhance/strengthen cooperation 开工典礼 commencement ceremony 再叙旧情 renew one’s old friendships 符合……的共同利益 meet the common interest of Protocol Department 礼宾司 Information Department 新闻司 embassy 大使馆 legation 公使馆 consulate-general 总领事馆
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commercial counselor’s office 商务处 press section, in formation service 新闻处 diplomatic rank 外交官衔 ambassador 大使 roving ambassador 巡回大使 accredited to ... 向…派遣的 persona non-great 不受欢迎的人 announcement 公告, 通告 mutual recognition 互相承认 establishment of diplomatic relations 建立外交关系 letter of introduction 介绍书 during one's absence 离任期间 de facto recognition 事实上承认 persona great 受欢迎的人 diplomatic practice 外交惯例 diplomatic privileges 外交特权 diplomatic courier 外交信使 letter of appointment 委任书 certificate of appointment 委任证书 declaration, manifesto 宣扬 formal note 正式照会 normalization 正常化 be appointed ambassador to ... 被任命为驻…大使 to sever diplomatic relations 断绝外交关系 to present one's credentials 递交国书 to exchange ambassadors 互派大使 to assume one's post 就任 to take exception to; to object to 提出异议 to upgrade diplomatic relations 外交关系升格 to make representations to, to take up a (the) matter with 向…交涉 to lodge a protest with 向…提出抗议 to request the consent of... 征求…的同意 to suspend diplomatic relations 中断外交关系 an atmosphere of cordiality and friendship 诚挚友好的气氛 memorial speech 悼词 to develop the relations of friendship and cooperation 发展友好合作关系 prosperity and strength 繁荣富强 friendly visit, goodwill visit 友好访问 private visit 私人访问 state visit 国事访问 obituary 讣告 questions of common interest; question of common concern 共同关心的问题 state banquet 国宴 message of greeting, message of congratulation 贺电
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speech of welcome 欢迎词 welcoming banquet 欢迎宴会 cocktail party 鸡尾酒会 good health and a long life 健康长寿 profound condolence 深切哀悼 cordial hospitality 盛情接待 the two sides, the two parties 双方 luncheon 午宴 message of condolence 唁电 reception 招待会 toast 祝酒词 memorial meeting 追悼会 to convey one's sympathy 表示慰问 to meet with 会见 to be shocked to learn of 惊悉 to propose a toast to... 提议为…干杯 on the happy occasion of 欣逢 on learning with great joy 欣悉 to give a banquet in honor of... 宴请… on invitation, upon invitation 应邀 at the invitation of... 应…邀请 in the company of..., accompanied by... 在…陪同下 to express one's sincere congratulations and best wishes 致以衷心的祝贺和最好的 愿望 to wish prosperity to a country and well-being to its people 祝 (某国) 国家繁荣人民 幸福 to take note of... 注意到 turn things around ministerial meetings video conference ad hoc meeting senior officials meeting(SOM) forum annual fair celebration plenary meeting summit meeting chairman on duty/rotating presidency honorary presidency former chairman full-fledged member chief delegate
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扭转乾坤 部长级会议 电视议会 非例行会议 高官会 论坛 年会 洽谈会 庆典 全体会议 首脑会议 轮值主席 名誉主席 前任主席 全权会员 首席代表

keynote speaker/keynoter 主要发言人 white paper, white book 白皮书 supplementative 补充报告 keynote speech 主题/基调报告 appended document 附属文件 bulletin 公告 official letters 公函 convention 公约 minutes 会议纪要 confidential document 机密文件 summary record 简要记录 recommendations 建议书 resolution 决议 message of greeting, message of congratulation 贺电 good health and a long life 健康长寿 profound condolence 深切哀悼 memorial meeting 追悼会 to convey one's sympathy 表示慰问 to express one's sincere congratulations and best wishes 致以衷心的祝贺和最好的愿望 to wish prosperity to a country and well-being to its people 祝(某国)国家繁荣人民幸福 for the sake of national prosperity 为了国家的繁荣 supplementary provision 补充条款 express grave concern over sth. 对某事予以严重关注 be deeply concerned about sth. 对某事表示深切关注 enhance mutual confidence 增加互信 mutual benefits and reciprocity 互惠互利 meet the common interest of 符合…的共同利益 建交 establishment of diplomatic relations between 互访 exchange of visit 一贯奉行 in persistent pursuit of 平等互利 equality and mutual benefit 双边关系 bilateral relations 持久和平 lasting peace 无可奉告 no comment 新闻发布会 news briefing 记者招待会 press/news conference 采访区域 area of news coverage 现场采访 spot report/coverage 阐明 elaborate on 持…态度 take a ?attitude toward 根本利益 the fundamental interests 至关重要 of vital importance 并行不悖 can go hard in hand/not mutually exclusive 强烈不满 strong dissatisfaction
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透露 采取必要措施 模糊的立场 单方面的 坚决反对 言行一致 缩小分歧 恪守承诺 促进合作 开创了新的局面 打破僵局 把握大局 台湾同胞 绝不容许台湾独立 日程 政治家风度

give some information about adopt necessary measures ambiguous attitude unilateral be firmly opposed to match one’s commitments narrow differences honor one’s commitments promote cooperation bring about a new situation break the deadlock grasp the overall situation Taiwan compatriots zero tolerate for Taiwan independence agenda great statesmanship

与国际接轨, To integrate … with the international standards/norms and practices/to conform to international norms and practices 和平统一谈判 reunification 和平与发展 negotiations on peaceful

peace and development

社会各阶层人们 the people of all social strata 高峰 peak time 高峰论坛 summit (forum) 高官会 Senior Officials Meeting (SOM) 和平共处五项原则: 互相尊重领土完整和主权、互不侵犯、互不干涉内政、平 等互利、和平共处 Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence: Mutual respect for territorial integrity and sovereignty, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence 举办城市 host city 礼尚往来 Courtesy calls for reciprocity. 面向 21 世纪的中美建设性伙伴关系 a constructive, strategic partnership between China and the United Stated aimed at the next century 睦邻友好关系 ( 合作 ) good-neighborly and friendly relations (cooperation) 排外主义 exclusivism
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排华政策 policy of discrimination against the Chinese 求大同,存小异 seek common ground on major question while reserving differences on minor ones 强权外交 power diplomacy 司仪 MC (master of ceremonies 与国际惯例接轨 become compatible with internationally accepted practices 友好城市 sister cities 增加信任,减少麻烦,发展合作,不搞对抗 enhance trust, reduce trouble, develop cooperation and avoid confrontation 战略防御计划 Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) 战略伙伴关系 strategic partnership 抓住机遇 seize the opportunity 开创两岸关系和平发展新局面 to usher in a new phase of peaceful development 借鉴国外发展经验 drawing on the experience of other countries in development press section, in formation service 新闻处 liaison office diplomatic rank 联络处 外交官衔

members of the administrative and technical staff 行政技术人员 ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary consul-general roving ambassador special envoy status quo of the boundary never to attach any conditions non-aligned countries dependency 特命全权大使 总领事 巡回大使 特使 边界现状 不附带任何条件 不结盟国家 附庸国

generally-accepted principles of international relations 公认的国际关系原则 joint action normalization of relations
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共同行动 关系正常化

an established principle of international law exchange of needed goods reduction or cancellation of debts territorial sea limits of territorial sea territorial air territorial waters inalienability of territory territorial jurisdiction territorial contiguity territorial integrity country of one's residence sacred and inviolable dual nationality sole legal government political offender political fugitive to take concerted steps

国际法准则 互通有无 减轻债务负担 领海 领海范围 领空 领水 领土的不可割让性 领土管辖权 领土毗连 领土完整 侨居国 神圣不可侵犯 双重国籍 唯一合法政府 政治犯 政治逃犯 采取协调行动

to develop relations of peace and friendship, equality and mutual benefit, and prolonged stability 发展和平友好、平等互利、长期稳定的关系 All countries, big or small, should be equal. to seek a fair and reasonable solution to negotiate through diplomatic channels mutual non-aggression 国家不分大小,应该一律平等 求得公平合理的解决 通过外交途径进行谈判 互不侵犯

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non-interference in each other’s internal affairs

互不干涉内政

mutual understanding and mutual accommodation 互谅互让 international practice superpower immediate interests world multi-polarization international community multilateral security mechanisms peaceful rise status quo good-neighborly policy non-proliferation to spare no effort in doing something to be better understood unswerving to reach broad consensus to be committed to to be doomed to failure in the spirit of measures of expediency have a bearing on a policy of closed-door and self isolation 最重视的国际问题 核问题 裁军 国际惯例 超级大国 切身利益 世界多极化 国际社会 多边安全机制 和平崛起 现状 睦邻友好政策 反扩散 不遗余力 扩大…的影响 一如既往 达成广泛认识 致力于 不能得逞 本着…的精神 权宜之计 与…息息相关 闭关自守

top international priority nuclear issue disarmament
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防扩散 打击 建设性的战略伙伴关系 对话渠道 以强凌弱 联合声明 坚定不移的 备忘录 介绍书 离任期间 总统先生阁下和夫人 边界谈判 采取惩罚行动 采取高姿态 采取协调行动 常驻代表 弹性外交 “度假外交” 国际聚焦 环太平洋地区 领土管辖权 领土毗连 流血冲突 民间外交 民意调查研究者 审视度势 推翻一个政权 外交攻势 万国公法 武装冲突 预防外交 向…派遣 备忘录 外交豁免 许可证书 被任命为驻…大使 向…交涉 with 提出异议 外交关系升格 赴任 递交国书 国书 向…提出抗议

non–proliferation to crack down on constructive strategic partnership channel of dialogue to bully joint declaration unswerving memorandum, aidememoire letter of introduction during one's absence His Excellency Mr. President and Mme... … boundary negotiation take punitive actions show magnanimity take concerted steps permanent representative elastic diplomacy holiday-making diplomacy international spotlight Pacific Rim territorial jurisdiction territorial contiguity bloody conflict people-to-people diplomacy public opinion researcher size up the situation topple a regime diplomatic offensive law of nations armed conflict preventive diplomacy accredited to ... memorandum, aidememoire diplomatic immunities exequatur be appointed ambassador to ... to make representations to, to take up a (the) matter to take exception to; to object to to upgrade diplomatic relations to proceed to take up one's post to present one's credentials letter of credence, credentials to lodge a protest with
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? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

USN:

United States Navy 美国海军

USNA : United States Naval Academy 美国海军军官学校 DIV : Division 分工、部门,师的简称 USAF : United States Air Force 美国空军 DOJ : Department Of Justice 反不正当竞争部门,司法部 USMA : United States Military Academy 美国陆军军官学校 RCMP : Royal Canadian Mounted Police 加拿大皇家骑警 ANG : Air National Guard 国家空中警卫队[美] VP : Vice President 副总统 RIF : Reduction In Force 精简兵员 MP : Member of Parliament 国会议员 PAC : Political Action Committee (美国)政治行动委员会(现改为政治教育 委员会)

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

CDR : Commander 指挥员 ACLU : American Civil Liberties Union 美国公民自由协会 WW : World War 世界大战 APO : Army Post Office (美国)陆军军邮局 BDU : Battle Dress Uniform 战斗服 KIA : Killed In Action 阵亡,战死 SGT : Sergeant 警官, 军士 MASH : Mobile Army Surgical Hospital 移动式军队外科医院 MP: Military Police 宪兵 PM : Prime Minister 首相; 总理 AF : Air Force 空军 LZ : Landing Zone 登陆区、着陆区 SEN : Senator 参议院 USS : United States Ship 美国军舰 LAPD : Los Angeles Police Department 洛杉矶警察局

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? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

PLO : Palestine Liberation Organization 巴勒斯坦解放组织 CMDR : Commander 司令官 DMZ : Demilitarized Zone 隔离区,非军事化区 JG : Junior Grade 少尉 UCMJ : Uniform Code of Military Justice 军事审判统一法典 MIA : Missing In Action 战斗中失踪的(人) WAC : Women's Army Corps 陆军妇女队[美] GCC : Gulf Cooperation Council 海湾合作委员会 PFC : Private First Class (美国)陆军(或海军陆战队)一等兵 CAS : Close Air Support 终止空中支援 TS : Top Secret 绝密 AAA : Anti-Aircraft Artillery 高射炮 CW : Chemical Warfare 化学战 DA: Department of the Army (美国)陆军部 OSS : Office of Strategic Services 战略情报局 USA : United States Army 美国军队 WO : Warrant Officer 准尉 BG : Brigadier General 准将 HR : House of Representatives 众议院[美] APC : Armored Personnel Carrier 装甲运兵车 CAP : Combat Air Patrol 战斗空中巡逻 PM : Provost Marshal 宪兵司令 SSA : Social Security Administration (美国)社会保障总署 ABM : Anti-Ballistic Missile 反弹道导弹 NR : Naval Reserve 海军后备舰队[美] AA : Anti-Aircraft 防空 AAF : Army Air Forces 陆军航空队 ICBM : Intercontinental Ballistic Missile 洲际弹道导弹 LWV : League of Women Voters 女选民

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? ? ? ? ? ? ?

MIL : Military 军事 PM : Police Magistrate 治安法官 START : Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty 战略武器削减条约 IRA : Irish Republican Army 爱尔兰共和军 OD: Olive Drab 橄榄色 NWS : National Weather Service 国家气象局 UNITAR : United Nations Institute for Training and Research 联合国训练 与研究组织

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

ONR : Office of Naval Research 海军研究所 USNR : United States Naval Reserve 美国海军后备队 MBT : Main Battle Tank 主战坦克,主电池箱 DNA : Defense Nuclear Agency 国防部原子能机构 CBO : Congressional Budget Office 国会预算局[美] CIS : Commonwealth of Independent States 独联体 AEC : Atomic Energy Commission 原子能委员会 EEA : European Economic Area 欧洲经济区 RAN : Royal Australian Navy 澳大利亚皇家海军 DMSP : Defense Meteorological Satellite Program 国防气象卫星计划 ICJ : International Court of Justice 国际法庭 DTIC : Defense Technical Information Center 国防技术情报中心 ONI : Office of Naval Intelligence 海军情报局 TVA : Tennessee Valley Authority 田纳西流域管理局 UNFPA : United Nations Fund for Population Activities 联合国人口活动基 金会

? ? ? ? ?

AH : Army Hospital 军队医院 BT : Break Through 突围, 突破 CA: Collective Agreement 工会代表工人与资方代表达成的协议

VFW : Veterans of Foreign Wars 美国海外退伍军人 UNSC : United Nations Security Council 联合国安全理事会

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? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

ACTU : Australian Council of Trade Unions 澳大利亚工会理事会 ARTINS : Army Terrain Information System 陆军地形情报系统[美] BW : Biological Warfare 生物战 NBPC : National Border Patrol Council 全国边境巡逻委员会 USO : United Service Organizations (美国)劳军联合组织,美国慰问协会 OIC : Organization of the Islamic Conference 伊斯兰国家会议组织 UNU : United Nations University 联合国大学 MCL : Marine Corps League 海军陆战队 APU : Auxiliary Power Unit 辅助动力装置 IRA : Individual Retirement Account 个人退休帐户<美> LMG : Light Machine Gun 轻机枪 RAAF : Royal Australian Air Force 澳大利亚皇家空军 USAR : United States Army Reserve 美国陆军后备队 ANC : African National Congress 非洲民族会议 IFAD : International Fund for Agricultural Development 国际农业发展基金 OAU : Organization of African Unity 非洲统一组织 SAARC : South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation 南亚地区合作 组织

82

科技
ABAP: Advanced Business Application Programming 高级商业应用程序设计语言 ABS: Anti-lock Braking System 防抱死刹车系统 AC/DC: Alternating/Direct Current 交流电/直流电 ACE: American Council on Education 美国教育委员会 ACIL: American Council of Independent Laboratories 美国独立实验室委员会 ACV: All Commodity Volume 积累营业额/气垫船 BSS 英文 Base Station System 的缩写,即基站系统,指移动通信中的空中接口部 分。 CARM 英文 Chinese Association of Rehabilitation Medicine 的缩写, 即中国康复医 学会。 CATV 英文 Cable Television 的缩写,即有线电视。 CCEL 英文 China Certification Committee for Environment Labeling Production 的 缩写,即中国环境标志产品认证委员会。 CD-ROM 英文 Compact Disk Read-Only Memory 的缩写,即人们常说的光驱。 CGO 英文 Chief Government Officer 的缩写,即首席沟通主管,主要负责与政府 机构之间的交流与沟通。 ChinaNET 英文 China Network 的缩写,即中国公用计算机网,它是政府建立的 计算机网络之一,与之相对应的有中国教育网等。 CID 英文 Central Information District 的缩写,即中央信息区。 CPA 英文 Certified Public Accountant 的缩写,即注册会计师,指依法取得注册资 金会计师证书并接受委托,从事审计和会计咨询、会计服务业务的执业人员。 CSCL 英文 computer-supported Collaborative Learning 的缩写, 是一种利用计算机 技术(尤其是多媒体网络技术)来辅助和支持的协作学习。 DDN 英文 Digital Data Network 的缩写,即数字数据网。 。 DOS 英文 Disk Opening System 的缩写,又称磁盘操作系统。 GSM 英文 Global Record Examination 的缩写,是全球移动通信系统无线系统的 一种通讯制式,使用时隙来区分无线信道。起源于欧洲,目前是世界上使用最广 泛的一种无线通讯制式。 HDCD 英文 High Definition Compact Disc 的缩写,即高清晰的 CD 的简称,是当 今唱片业制作技术发展的最新、最高科技的代表。 HDTV 英文 High definition Television 的缩写,即高清晰度数字电视。 HTTP 英文 Hyper Text Transfer Protocol 的缩写,即超文本传输协议。 ICP 英文 Internet Content Provider 的缩写,是互联网内容提供商指定为互联网提 供实际内容的实体。 ISND 英文 Integrated Service Digital Network 的缩写,即综合业务数字网。1972 年 CCITT 提出这一概念。80 年代初实现了用户线数字传输技术人实用化。 ITU 英文 International Telecommunication Union 的缩写,是国际电信国际上 的电信标准制定的管理机构, 绝大多数的通讯标准都要经过它的认可或制定。其 前身是 CCITT。 ISBN International Standard Book Number 国际标准图书编号 MMS 英文 Multimedia Messaging Service 的缩写,即多媒体信息服务。 MODEM 英文 Modulator Demodulator 的缩写,即调制解调器。
83

MS 英文 Mobile Station 的缩写,即移动系统终端,也就是通常所说的手机。 MSC 英文 Mobile Switch Center 的缩写,即移动交换中心,指移动通信系统中的 交换部分,其功能主要是完成信令和话路交换、移动性管理、漫游管理等。 NMD 英文 National Missile Defense 的缩写,即国家导弹防御计划。 OEM 英文 Original Equipment Manufacturer 的缩写,即原始设备制造商。 OICQ 英文 Open ICQ 的缩写(ICQ 为英文 I See You 的谐音), 简称 QQ, 是目前流 行的一种网上聊天软件。 PDA 英文 Personal Digital Assistant 的缩写,字面意思是“个人数字助理”。 PNTR 英文 Permanent Normal Trade Relationship 的缩写,即永久正常贸易关系。 PSTN 英文 Public Switch Telephone Network 的缩写,是“公用电话交换网”的通俗 说法 VDSL: Very High Speed Digital Subscriber Line 超高速数码用户线路 VE: Value Engineering 工程经济学 VESA: Video Electronics Standards Association 视频电子标准协会 VFD: Vacuum Fluorescent Display 真空荧光显示器 VFIIP: Virtual Factory Information Interchange Project 虚拟工厂信息交换计划 VGA: Video Graphics Adapter 视频图形适配器 VHDL: Very High Density Logic VLSI: Very Large Scale Integration 超大规模集成 VMI: Vendor Managed Inventory 供应商管理库存 VOC: Volatile Organic Compound 挥发性有机化合物 VPDM: Virtual Product Data Management VPM: Virtual Product Model VRML: Virtual Reality Modeling Language 虚拟现实模块语言 WAN: Wide Area Network 广域网 WARN: Workers' Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act WBS: Work Breakdown Schedule 工作分解安排 WCDMA: Wideband Code Division Multiple Access 宽带码多地址移动通信系统 WCM: World Class Manufacturing 世界级制造生产 WIP: Work in Process 在制品 WLL: Wireless Local Loop 无线区域环路 WMS: Warehouse Management System 仓储管理系统 WTO: World Trade Organization W3C: World Wide Web Consortium 万维网,万维网联合会 XGA: Extended Graphics Adapter 增强型图形适配器 XML: Extensible Markup Language 可扩展标记语言 ZEV: Zero Emissions Vehicle 零排放交通工具

84

文化缩略词
CEO 英文 Chief Enective Officer 的缩写,即首席执行官。 CET 英文 College English Test 的缩写,即大学英语测试。 CFO 英文 Chief Finance Officer 的缩写,即首席财务主管。 CGFNS 英文 Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nuring Schools 的缩写,即外国 护士毕业生委员会。 CGO 英文 Chief Government Officer 的缩写,即首席沟通主管,主要负责与政府 机构之间的交流与沟通。 DhinaNET 英文 Chian Network 的缩写,即中国公用计算机网,它是政府建立的 计算机网络之一,与之相对应的有中国教育网等。 CI 英文 Corporate Identity 的缩写,即企业形象统一战略,指对企业的独特性和 目标加以明确化和统一化, 并在企业内外公众之中为建立这种印象而开展的有组 织的活动。 CA 英文 Certified Public Accountant 的缩写,即注册会计师,指依法取得注册资 金会计师证书并接受委托,从事审计和会计咨询、会计服务业务的执业人员。 CPI 英文 Consumer Price Index 的缩写,即全国居民消费价格指数。 。 CSCL 英文 computer-supported Collaborative Learning 的缩写, 是一种利用计算机 技术(尤其是多媒体网络技术)来辅助和支持的协作学习。 CTO 英文 Chief Technology Officer 的缩写,即首席技术主管。 DDN 英文 Digital Data Network 的缩写,即数字数据网。 。 DV 英文 Digital Vedio 的缩写,即数码摄像,现又多指由个人制作的数字影像作 品。 E-Book 以电子版的方式在互联网上出版发行的书籍。 E-Learning 又称 On-Line Learning,即在线学习,一种网络时代的学习方式。 E-MAIL 电子邮件,这是一种利用 Internet 网交换文字信息的交互式服务,全世 界 Internet 用户可以互相发送和接收电子邮件。 EMBA 英文 Executive Mster of Business Administration 的缩写,即高级经理工商 管理硕士,是面向企业和政府经济管理部门高级管理人员的硕士层次的管理教 育,国外又称“总裁班”。 EPD 英文 Eviroment People and development 的缩写, 意为环境人口与可持续发展 教育,是联合国教科文组织的跨学科项目。 EQ 英文 Emotional Quotient 的缩写,即情商,又称情绪智力,是近年来心理学家 提出的与智力和智商相对应的概念。它主要是指人在情绪、情感、意志、耐受挫 折等方面的品质。 EVA 英文 Economic Value Added 的缩写, 即经济增加值, 指在扣除产生利润而投 资的资本的成本之后所剩下的利润。 FUN 新型的家庭生活方式,也就是现代健康家庭的三个要素:F 代表健身,U 代 表和谐,N 代表营养。 GMAT 英文 Graduate Management Admission 的缩写,即管理类专业的研究生入 学考试。 GRE 英文 Graduate Record Examamination 的缩写,由美国教育考试服务中心 (ETS)主办的美国硕士研究生入学资格考试。美国和加拿大的大多数研究生院
85

要求申请者有 GRE 成绩,作为评定申请者能力的可靠依据。 GSM 英文 Grabal Record Examination 的缩写,是全球移动通信系统无线系统的 一种通讯制式,使用时隙来区分无线信道。起源于欧洲,目前是世界上使用最广 泛的一种无线通讯制式。 MBA 英文 Mater of Business Administration 的缩写,即工商管理硕士专业学位。 MMS 英文 Multimedia Messaging Service 的缩写,即多媒体信息服务。 MODEM 英文 Modulator Demodulator 的缩写,即调制解调器。 MPA 英文 Mster of Public Administration 的缩写,即公共管理硕士。 MS 英文 Mobile Station 的缩写,即移动系统终端,也就是通常所说的手机。 MSC 英文 Mobile Switch Center 的缩写,即移动交换中心,指移动通信系统中的 交换部分,其功能主要是完成信令和话路交换、移动性管理、漫游管理等。 NMD 英文 National Missile Defense 的缩写,即国家导弹防御计划。 OEM 英文 Original Equipment Manufacturer 的缩写,即原始设备制造商。 PETS 英文 Public English Test System 缩写,即全国公共英语等级考试。 PDA 英文 Personal Digital Assistant 的缩写,字面意思是“个人数字助理”。 PMP 英文 Project Management Professional 的缩写,即项目管理专业人员资格认 证。 PNIR 英文 Perfomanent Normal Trade Relationship 的缩写,即永久正常贸易关系。 TOEFL 英文 Test of English As a foreign Language 的缩写,即“托福”。 TOPE 英文 Test of Spoken Professional English 的缩写,即 ETS 职业英语考试。 TSE 英文 Test of Spoken English 的缩写,即英语口语考试,是美国教育考试服务 中心为非英语国家的学生提供的英语口语水平考试,主要测验考生的口语能力。 网络文化 ASAP As soon as possible 尽快 BF Boyfriend 男朋友 BTW By the way 随便说一下 BBL Be back later 稍后回来 BRB Be right back 很快回来 CU See you 再见 CUL See you later 下次再会 DIIK Damned if I known 我真的不知道 DS Dunce smiley 笨伯 FE For example 举例 FTF Face to face 面对面 FYI For your information 供参考 GF girlfriend 女朋友 IAE In any event 无论如何 IC I see 我明白 ILY I love you 我爱你 IMHO In my humble opinion 依愚人之见 IMO In my opinion 依我所见 IOW In other words 换句话说 LOL laughing out loudly 大声笑 NRN No reply necessary 不必回信
86

OIC Oh, I see 哦,我知道 RSVP Reply if you please 请答复 TIA Thanks in advance 十分感谢 TTUL Talk to you later 以后再讲 TY Thank you 谢谢 VG very good 很好 WRT With respect to 关于 WYMM Will you marry me 愿意嫁给我吗

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