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安全工程专业英语教材


中国矿业大学自编教材









安全工程专业 (矿山通风、安全和健康方向)

郝天轩

高建良



安全科工程学院 二零零三年九月

Contents
Part Ⅰ Mine Ventilation Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6
Introduction to Mine Ventilation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·- 1 Energy Changes in Fluid Flow · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·- 5 Face Ventilation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·- 7 Mechanical Ventilation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 11 Mine Ventilation Systems · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 15 Fundamentals of Ventilation Network Analysis · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 19 -

Part Ⅱ Mine Safety Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Lesson 9 Lesson 10 Lesson 11 Lesson 12 Lesson 13 Lesson 14
Mine Gases · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 24 Coal seam methane · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 28 Open Fires · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 32 Spontaneous Combustion· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 35 Methods of Dust Control · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·- 1 Mine Drainage · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·- 4 Mine Rescue Operations · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·- 8 Survival Program · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 11 -

Part Ⅲ Mine Health Lesson 15 Hearing Loss among Miners and Measures to Protect Hearing· · · · · · · · · · · · - 14 Lesson 16 Heat Illness · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 18 Lesson 17 Cold Environments · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 22 Part Ⅳ New Techniques and Progress
Interactive Ventilation Hazard Assessment and Training Using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Virtual Reality · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·- 1 Dust Monitoring and Control · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·- 6 Apparatus for Measuring the Gas Content of Coal or Rock Core Samples · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -8-

Lesson 18 Lesson 19 Lesson 20 附录

科技翻译例句…………………………………………………………………………………-44-

Part Ⅰ

Mine Ventilation

LESSON

1 Introduction to Mine Ventilation

[教学内容] Introduction、Purposes of Mine Ventilation、Historical Development、Properties of Air [教学目的] 通过该部分学习,要求学生熟记 Mine ventilation、dilute、contaminant、exhaust shaft、 colliery、 trapper 、 moisture content 等专业词汇, 达到英文与中文相互熟练翻译的程度; 深入理解 Purposes of Mine Ventilation、Properties of Air 等内容,达到熟练阅读和正确、通顺地翻译的程度;了解 Historical Development 等内容,达到比较熟练和比较通顺翻译的程度。 [教学重点、难点] purposes of Mine Ventilation、Properties of Air [课时安排] 1 [授课方法] 讲授与讨论相结合 Introduction Mine ventilation involves the control of the atmospheric environment. This requires control of the air quality and air movement to satisfy the requirements for the health, safety and comfort of mine workers. Minimum standards are set out in the various states mines regulation. Some are descriptive, specifying the standards required (eg. Victoria), and some are prescriptive, detailing exactly how the standards are to be achieved (eg. W.A.). set out To lay out systematically and graphically: 生动形象地摆出: set out a terrace. 画出地形 矿山通风涉及到对大气环境的控制。这需要控制空气的质量和运动,以满足矿工的健康、安全和舒 适性要求。(※翻译技巧:正反处理法)许多州的矿山条例中都提出了(关于空气的质量和运动方面的) 最低标准。有些是叙述性的,指明必需的标准(例如,维多利亚 加拿大港市)。有些是说明性的,详细 严密地叙述如何达到这些标准(例如 ) Purposes of Mine Ventilation Properly engineered control of the mine atmosphere is required to: · provide fresh air (oxygen) for men to breathe · provide a source of oxygen for internal combustion engines in machinery · dilute atmospheric contaminants to acceptable levels · maintain temperature and humidity within acceptable limits · remove atmospheric contaminants from the mine. engineer vt 设计 The road is very well engineered. 这条路设计得很好。 策划 His enemies engineered his ruin. 敌人图谋毁灭他。 The minister's enemies engineered his ruin. 部长的敌人密谋陷害他。 矿山通风的目标

(※翻译技巧:拆句译法)从工程技术来讲,正确控制矿山空气需要:

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·提供新鲜的空气(氧气)工,供人呼吸 ·提供氧气来源,供给各种机械上的内燃机。 ·稀释空气中的污染物,以达到允许标准 ·保持空气的温度和湿度在容许的界限内 ·除去空气当中来自矿山的污染物。 Historical Development Mine ventilation is twofold in purpose: first, it maintains life, and secondly it carries off dangerous gases. The historic role of ventilation was to provide a flow of fresh air sufficient to replace the oxygen consumed by the miners working underground. 矿山通风的目标有两部分内容:首先,维持生命;其次,带走有毒的气体。矿山通风在历史上重要 的角色是提供足量的新鲜空气,以代替井下工作的矿工所消耗的氧气。 注:Historic和 historical尽管在意义上有重叠的地方,但用法上有区别。 Historic指历史上有重要意 义的: the historic first voyage to outer space而且也用于形容那些因与历史事件或人物有联系而有名或有趣 的事物:a historic house. Historical是指不管重要与否而在过去存在的所有事物:a historical character. Historical也指与历史或对过去的研究有关的事物:a historical novel;

但这两个词并不是截然不同的。它们经常可换用。
historic adj.历史上著名的, 有历史性的 historical adj.历史(上)的, 有关历史的 Today's mine ventilation primarily deals with noxious gases (mainly generated by trackless equipment underground). 现今,矿山通风主要对付有害的气体(主要由无轨设备产生)。 注:不太确切,诚然一些无轨设备会产生一些有害气体(如井下的蓄电池充电时可释放出氢气),

但大部分有害气体产生于生产过程中,如爆破作业等。
In the past, mining occurred near the surface where natural light and ventilation was available. Fires were used to draw fresh air into the mine and exhaust shafts vented the hot smoke out of the mine. 过去,采矿业产生在地表附近,可利用自然光和通风。人们用火驱动新鲜空气进入井下,出风井把 烟排出井外。 Long before coal was mined in North America, collieries in Europe were sunk with dual entrances; one through which air flowed into the mine and another through which air flowed out. Initially, mine ventilation was assisted by underground furnaces, which used the practical principle that the updraft of a fire caused a suction which drew air out of the mine and this air was replaced by air which was pulled in to fill the opening. 在北美州开始采煤的很早以前,欧洲的煤矿都挖掘两个入口:一个用来流入空气,一个用来流出空 气。最初,人们用地下的炉子帮助矿山通风。这利用的实际原理是:火的上升气流产生一种吸力,驱动 空气排出井外,从而在原来位置产生空缺,然后驱动另外空气填充空缺。 注:colliery (包括建筑, 设备在内的)煤矿 Canaries are said to have been used to detect gas in coal mines in the early stages of coal mining. This sensitive bird would be taken into the workings and, if it perished, the colliers would immediately leave the mine. 在煤矿开采的早期,人们已用金丝雀来检测瓦斯。这种敏感的鸟带到工作地点,如果发现它死亡了, 矿工将立即离开矿井。

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However, before the 1870s, managers and qualified persons were using safety lamps to detect gas. These safety lamps soon replaced oil lamps and open flared candles as a source of working light. 然而,在19世纪70年代以前,管理人员和有资格的人员一直用安全灯来检测瓦斯。这些安全灯很快 代替油灯和裸露燃烧的蜡烛作为工作照明的工具。 Soon, small hand-turned fans were used to blow out gas from working places into main air currents. Trap doors were strategically placed as part of the ventilation system to guide the flow of air to or from selected areas. "Trapper" boys were posted at the busier doors to open them for the passage of coal, materials and men. "Air courses" were frequently cut through coal and rock. 很快,人们用手工转动的风机把来自于工作地点的瓦斯吹到主风流当中。通气门被放置在通风系统 中,以引导风流流入或流出选定的区域,这具有战略意义(※翻译技巧:拆句译法)。矿井风门开关管 理员被安排在过往较频繁的风门,当煤、材料和人员通过时,打开风门。通风巷道经常穿过煤层和岩层。 In the 1920s the hand-turned fans were replaced with air-powered small turbine fans. Large fans of the suction type were placed on the surface and gradually increased in size. Air from surface compressors was piped into the mine to power machinery and to assist in ventilation. 20世纪20年代, 手工转动的风机被小型的空气动力涡轮风机所取代。 大型的抽出式风机安置在地表, 并且其尺寸在逐渐增加。地面的压缩机把风流通过管道压入矿井中,供给动力机械和辅助通风。 Properties of Air The constituents of air are: Constituent Nitrogen (N2) Oxygen (O2) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Rare Gases (Ar, H2, He, etc.) Volume 78.09 20.95 0.03 0.93 Mass % 75.53 23.14 0.04 1.28

Atmospheric Pressure at any point is due to the weight of air above it, and varies with altitude (which determines the height of the air column), and air density (which is determined by temperature and moisture content). Standard atmospheric pressure is taken as 760mm of Hg, (101.3kPa) at mean sea level, and it varies by about lkPa for every 90 m increase or decrease in altitude. 任何地点的大气压力是由于其上面的空气柱的重量所产生的,随着高度(决定空气柱的高度)和空 气密度(由温度和湿度所决定)发生变化。 Atmospheric temperature is normally given according to the Celsius scale (° C), but the Kelvin scale (° K) may be used. 大气温度通常以摄氏度的形式给出,然而开氏温标也被使用。标准大气压力在平均海平面下为760 毫米汞柱,高度每增加或减少90米,压力变化1kPa。 0° K 273° K 373° K = = = -273° C 0° C 100° C (absolute zero) (freezing point of water) (boiling point of water)

Air is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas mixture which supports combustion and life. In mine ventilation

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we are usually dealing with an air/water vapor mixture which has different thermodynamic properties to dry air. The density of dry air is 1.21 kg/m? at standard atmospheric pressure (101.3kPa) and temperature (15° C). 空气是无色、无嗅、无味的混合气体,维持燃烧和生命。矿井通风当中,我们通常讨论空气和水蒸 汽的混合物,这和干空气的热力性质不同。标准大气压力和温度下,干空气的密度是1.21kg/m3。

New Words and Expressions
Mine ventilation 矿山通风 internal combustion engine 内燃机 dilute 冲淡, 变淡, 变弱, 稀释 contaminant 污染物 noxious 有害的 exhaust shaft 出风井 colliery 煤矿 sink 挖掘 suction 吸入, 吸力, 抽气, 抽气机, 抽水泵, 吸引 canary [动]金丝雀, 淡黄色 trap door 通风门 trapper 设阱捕兽者, [矿]矿井风门开关管理 moisture content 湿度 thermodynamic adj.热力学的, 使用热动力的

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LESSON

2 Energy Changes in Fluid Flow 流体流动的能量变化

[教学内容] Energy terms、energy changes、Bernoulli energy equation [教学目的] 通过该部分学习,要求学生熟记 head、static energy、velocity energy、potential energy incompressible fluid 等专业词汇,达到英文与中文相互熟练翻译的程度;深入理解 Energy terms、energy changes、Bernoulli energy equation 达到熟练阅读和正确、通顺地翻译的程度。 [教学重点、难点] Bernoulli energy equation [课时安排] 1 [授课方法] 讲授与讨论相结合

一、复习旧课
1.回忆exhaust shaft、colliery、trapper专业词汇的中文含义 2.Review of the various methods of mine ventilation in history

二、讲授新课
Mine Ventilation is normally an example of a steady flow process, that is, one in which none of the variables of flow changes with time. Transition and loss in energy are involved in such a process, and it is important to understand their nature and to be able to express them mathematically. Energy changes are basic to the calculation of the mine quantity and head, one of the ultimate objectives of mine-ventilation engineering. An expression relating the energy variables may be developed as follows. 正常情况下,矿山通风是稳定流动过程中的一种,也就是说,流动过程中所有流动变量不随时间发 生变化。能量转换和能量损失包含在这个过程中,重要的是:我们应了解它们的性质,并能够用澳门威尼斯人网址形 式描述出来。能量变化是计算矿山风量和压力的基础,而计算矿山风量和压力是矿山通风工程的一个最 终目标。一个与能量的变量相关联的式子将在下面阐述。 The total energy at any section in a moving as fluid consists of the sum of the internal static, velocity, potential, and heat energies at that section. Assume a real fluid moving in a conduit, and consider the energy changes that occur between any two sections in the system. The heat changes is generally negligible compared to the other terms, except in deep mines or ones naturally ventilated, and the addition of mechanical energy is usually considered separately. Omitting these terms for now, the total energy at section 1equals the total energy at section 2, plus the flow energy losses occurring between 1 and 2, or (total energy)1 = (total energy)2 +(flow energy losses)1-2 (1)

substituting expressions for the various energy terms and disregarding the minor change in internal energy, the following general energy equation for fluid flow results:

P1 V12 P V2 ? ? Z1 ? 2 ? 2 ? Z 2 ? H 1?2 W 2g W 2g
Where:

(2)

P1 P2 , -------- static energy; W W V12 V22 , -------velocity energy; 2g 2g
Z,,Z2 ----------potential energy; H1-2 ----------flow energy loss.

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流体在流动过程中,其任何区域的总能量由该区域固有的静压能、动压能、位能和热能组成。假定 真实流体在管道中流动,并且考虑系统中任两区域之间的能量变化。同其他形式的能量相比,热能常常 忽略,除了深部矿井和自然通风的矿井之外。机械能之和常常单独考虑。暂且忽略热能,那么区域 1 的 总能量等于区域 2 的总能量加上 1 和 2 之间的流动能量损失,即: 用式子代替各种能量形式,并且不考虑内能的微小变化,得出流体的总能量方程如下: Equation 2 is recognized as the familiar Bernoulli equation, applicable to all fluid-flow processes. In this form, it applied only to an incompressible fluid, which air is assumed to be in nearly all mine ventilation because of minor changes in air density. 式子 2 为我们所熟悉的柏努利(Daniel, 1700-1782, 瑞士物理学家澳门威尼斯人网址家)方程,适用于所有流体流动 过程。在这种形式中,伯努力方程仅适用于不可压缩流体,几乎所有矿井通风中的空气都可假定为不可 压缩流体,因为空气密度变化很小。 Each term in the equation is actually a specific energy, in unit of m.kg/kg, or m. Since m is a measure of fluidhead, these terms can also be referred to as pressure heads or simply heads. In dealing with air, it is customary to employ mm of water rather m of an air as the unit of head. 方程式中的每一项实际上是一个特定的能量,单位为 m.kg/kg, 或 m。因为 m 作为流体的度量单位, 所以这些形式的压力也可称为压头或仅仅称为头。对于空气来说,习惯上采用毫米水柱而不是米水柱来 作为头的单位。 Accepting the equivalency of specific energy and head, the general equation as written in Eq.1 can also be expressed:

H t1 ? H t 2 ? H1?2
Where: Ht total head; and Eq.2 can be expressed: Hs1+Hv1+Hz1=Hs2+Hv2+Hz2+H1-2

(3)

(4)

Where Hs is static head, Hv is velocity head, and Hz is elevation or potential head, all heads have the unit of mm water. 如果认为特定能量和头等价,那么以方程 1 形式所写出的一般方程也可以表示为: 式中 Ht—总压头;方程 2 也可以表示为: These versions of the Bernoulli energy equation (Eq.2 and 4) are both basic and general and the most useful to employ in mine ventilation. In relating the static velocity, potential, and total heads plus the losses flow, the energy equation permits writing of an expression encompassing all flow variables between any two points in the ventilation system. These points may be selected at the beginning and end of the system (the entrance and discharge of mine for the air circuit), enabling the calculation of the characteristics for the entire system (the mine heads). 伯努力方程的这些形式不仅是基本的、普遍的,而且是最有用的应用于矿山通风的手段。能量方程 式与流体的静压、速压、位压、总压头加上流动损失相关联,能够表示成包含通风任两点的所有流动参 数的形式。这些点可以选在系统的开始和结束处(矿山空气环路的进口和出口) ,从而能够计算整个系统 的特性(矿山压头) 。

New Words and Expressions
head 液压,气压:液体或气体产生的压力;压差 static energy 静压能 velocity energy 动能 potential energy 位能 incompressible fluid 不可压缩流体

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LESSON

3 Face Ventilation 工作面通风

[教学内容] Line Brattice、Auxiliary Fan [教学目的] 通过该部分学习, 要求学生熟记 Face、 entry、 crosscut、 brattice、 auxiliary fan、 heading 、 blowing (or blower)system、exhaust system 、methane buildup 等专业词汇,达到英文与中文相互熟练翻 译的程度;深入理解 Line Brattice、Auxiliary Fan 达到熟练阅读和正确、通顺地翻译的程度。 [教学重点、难点] Auxiliary Fan [课时安排] 1 [授课方法] 讲授与讨论相结合

一、复习旧课
1.回忆head、incompressible fluid专业词汇的中文含义;静压、位压的英文表述; 2.Please describe the Bernoulli equation in English.

二、讲授新课
Unless the air is properly distributed to the face, the mine ventilation system is not performing its primary function [1]. While it has always been recognized that this last part of ventilation is the most import, it is also the most difficult to achieve. (*教学手段:have a student read above paragraph ,then explain how translate it in Chinese.) 除非给工作面分配了合适的风量,否则矿井通风系统就没有完成它的主要任务。虽然人们普遍认识 到通风的这个最终任务是极其重要的,但是要完成这个任务也是极其困难的。 [1]注:Unless=if not(如果不,除非) ,该从属连词引导一个条件状语从句。 There are basically two methods of ventilating the blind entries ahead of the last open crosscut: the use of line brattices or the installation of auxiliary fans. Each technique has its defenders as well as its outspoken critics[2]. (*教学手段:have a student read above paragraph ,then explain how translate it in Chinese.) 对最后一个连通石门前的独头平巷进行通风,有两种主要方法:使用纵向风障和安装局部通风机。 每一种方法都有它的优点和缺点。 [2]注:defenders(防御者)引申为优点,outspoken critics(坦率地批评)引申为缺点。 Line Brattices The line brattice is essentially a space divider or temporary partition made of an impervious material that is installed and maintained very carefully and kept as close to the face as possible[3]. Its purpose is to guide the airflow through the face area and last open crosscut and into the return. Brattices were formerly (and to some extent still are) made of untreated jute, but nylon reinforced plastics and similar materials are more commonly used in them today. While the more effective material is invariably higher in initial cost, it results in lower overall expense in that it allows for greater reuse and less air leakage. (*教学手段:Ask all the students to translate the above italic sentence into Chinese by themselves. After 3 minutes, have three students read their translation. Then ask the other students to select the best translation.) 纵向风障实际上是一种用不透风材料制成的间隔物即临时隔板,它要细心安置、精心维护,并使其 尽可能接近工作面。纵向风障的用途是引导风流流经工作面区域和最后连通石门后,进入到回风流中。 以前,纵向风障是由未经加工的黄麻制成的(现在仍多少使用这种材料) ,但是,现在人们普遍使用尼龙 加固塑料和类似的材料来制成风障。虽然这种效果较好的材料使初期成本总是较高,但是它导致总体费 用下降,这是因为考虑到它能够多次重复使用,并且漏风较少。 注:that 引导的定语从句修饰 a space divider 而不是 impervious material;as close as possible 尽可能 接近的。 The line brattice is installed so as to split the heading longitudinally and thus provides an inlet as well as a return from the face to the last open crosscut. Since the mining machine must have room to maneuver on one

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side of the brattice, it is not practical to split the entry evenly, so a wide side is provided for the machine. The air may be brought up the narrow side and, after it sweeps by the face , returned on the wide side, as in the blowing system or it may be forced in the reverse direction as shown in the exhaust system[4]. Since the blowing system produces a high velocity of air at the face, it achieves superior gas dilution, but the air, now contaminated with gas and dust, returns over the machine and its operator. As a result, this system is rarely used today. The more commonly employed exhaust system, with intake air coming in on the wide side of the brattice and returning on the narrow side, eliminates this problem because the fresh air passes over the machine operator before it reached the face. However, since the air velocity provided at the face by the exhausted system is low, it does a less effective job of diluting the gas there. In fact, the corner of the face opposite the end of the brattice can easily gas up, so it is imperative that the end of the brattice be maintained no farther than 3 m from the face.[5] (*教学手段:Ask all the students to translate the above italic sentence into Chinese by themselves. After 3 minutes, have three students read their translation. Then ask the other students to select the best translation.) 安装纵向风障使得平巷沿纵向分割, 从而形成一进风通道和一从工作面到达最后连通石门的回风道。 采矿机械要在风障的一侧运行,必须留有空间,因此等分入口安装是不符合实际的,应在采煤机的一侧 留出较多的空间。在压入式系统中,风流从窄的一侧流入,在清扫工作面后,从宽的一侧排出,而在抽 出式系统中风流方向反向。由于压入式系统在工作面附近提供了的风速较高,因此瓦斯能够得到很好的 稀释。但是,由于含有瓦斯和粉尘的污浊风流流经机器和操作人员,所以现在很少采用这种系统。现在, 广泛采用的是抽出式系统,在这个系统中,风流从风障较宽的一侧流入,从较窄的一侧排出,由于新鲜 风流首先流经采煤机的操作人员,然后才到达工作面,所以消除了压入式系统产生的问题。然而,因为 抽出式系统在工作面附近提供的风速较低,因此,它的瓦斯稀释效果不好。事实上,工作面对应于风障 端部的角落,容易得到瓦斯聚集,所以规定风障端部与工作面之间的距离不能大于 3m。 [4]注:by 表示“穿过” 、 “途径”的意思,介词短语在状语从句中作状语。 [5]注:由 that 引导的主语从句的虚拟语气省略了 should。一般主语从句的虚拟语气用于意志动词的 被动结构中,也可用于 it is necessary, it is important, it is essential 等结构的主语从句中。 Auxiliary Fans While auxiliary fans have not achieved the popularity they deserve in coal mines, they are not necessarily panacea for face ventilation [6]. As a concept, the idea of hanging tubing out of the way while providing an adequate flow of air to the face appears very attractive [7]. However, when one begins to calculate the pressure and horsepower required by an auxiliary fan, one soon realizes that the tubing needs to be much larger than originally visualize. Also, it must be very carefully installed and maintained to minimize leakage and kept close to the face. However, it may be easier to keep the tubing closer to the face than it is with a line brattice. 当局部通风机在煤矿开采中没有得到应有的普及时,它们未必是工作面通风的万能灵药。从原理上 来说,将管道悬吊于巷道旁巡而为工作面供应足够风量的思想似乎是很有吸引力的。但是,当我们开始 计算局部通风机所需的压力和功率时,就会很快意识到管道所需的尺寸比原先想象的大得多。同时,局 部通风机应细心安置,精心维护以减少漏风量,并使其接近工作面。不过局部通风机管道比纵向风障更 容易靠近工作面。 [6]注:not necessarily,不一定,未必。 [7]while 是连词,所以 providing 和 hanging 并列同为 idea 的定语。 A blower system can be installed as shown in Fig. 1 (A) [8]. There is no problem in delivering more than 1 416 L/s of air through 30 m of 45 cm-diam tubing with reasonable pressure and horsepower. Even with the end of the tubing as far as 10.6 m from the face, adequate dilution can be achieved with methane liberations of as much as 9.4 L/s. The disadvantage of such a blower system is that dust-and gas-laden air passes over the machine operator, and a methane buildup can occur out by the machine. Because of the difficulty of controlling dust, this technique is seldom used today. 压入式系统的安装如图 18.1 (A) 所示。 该系统释放超过 1416 升/秒的具有适度压力和功率的风流, 流经长度为 30 米、直径为 45 厘米的管道,这不存在任何问题。甚至当管道距离工作面有 10.6 米远,该 系统也能够充分稀释释放量为 9.4 升/秒的瓦斯。压入式系统的缺点是含有粉尘和瓦斯的污浊风流流经 采掘机操作人员,并且在采煤机附近能够产生瓦斯聚集。由于很难控制粉尘,这种方法目前很少使用。 [8]注:as 引导的为定语从句。在科技文献中,可省略 be,as 在定语从句中作主语,在意义上代替 前面整个句子。 The exhaust system shown in Fig. 1(B) eliminates the passage of contaminated air over the machine operator, and effectively removes the dust from the working environment. However, even when an airflow of 2630 L/s is maintained through an 45cm tubing 30 m long and ending within 2.1 m of the face, it is not uncommon to have the far corner gas up. When the tubing is allowed to lag back from the face 4.5 to 6 m, it is

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not uncommon for the entire face to gas up. By this time, the operator is between the end of the tubing and the face and is exposed to contaminated air, so this is a situation that must not be allowed to occur. (*教学手段:Ask all the students to translate the above italic sentence into Chinese by themselves. After 3 minutes, have three students read their translation. Then ask the other students to select the best translation.) 图 18.1(B)所示的抽出式系统消除了污浊空气流经采掘机操作人员的通道,有效地除去工作环境 中的粉尘。不过,即使当 2630 升/秒的风流流经直径为 45 厘米,长度为 30 米,端部距离工作面在 2.1 米以内的管道时,远而偏的隅角仍有瓦斯聚集。当管道滞后于工作面 4.5 到 6 米时,整个工作面都会有 瓦斯聚集。这时,在管道端部和工作面之间的操作人员暴露在污浊气流中,因此这种情况不允许发生。

Fig. 1 Face ventilation with auxiliary blower (A) and exhaust fans (B) The combination of a diffuser fan mounted on the mining machine and an exhaust fan as sown in Fig. 2 achieves optimal results without the inconvenience installing and maintaining two lines of vent tubing. A small, hydraulically driven, centrifugal fan powered by the miner ’s hydraulic system is mounted directly on the machine. With as little as 306.8 L/s of air from 15 cm-diam tubing directed toward the face, it is possible to provide an air flow of 1005 m/min in the far corner of the face and effectively force contaminated air into the larger air volume circulated by the exhausted fan. By circulating 1888 L/s through a 30 m length of 90 cm tubing, methane liberation of up to 18.9 L/s have been safely handled. With this system, recirculation can occur during normal operation if the exhaust tubing is Fig. 2 Combination auxiliary fans allowed to lag behind, and thus the end of the tubing should always be kept well ahead of the inlet to the diffuser fan. Also, if the exhaust fan stops for any reason, and the machine continues to operate, recirculation will occur around the diffuser fan with possibly a dangerous accumulation of gas. 如图 18.2 所示,将装在采煤机上的扩散式辅助扇风机和抽出式风机联合能获得最佳效果,又无安装 和维修两条管道之麻烦。 一小型的、由采煤机液压系统驱动的离心式风扇直接安装在采煤机上。该系统 在直径 15 厘米的管道中产生的 306.8L/s 风流直接流向工作面,这就可能使工作面远而偏的隅角处风流 速度达到 1005 米/分, 有效地迫使污浊空气流入到由抽出式风扇循环的体积较大的气流中。 使 1888 升 /秒的风流循环流经长度为 30 米, 直径为 90 厘米的管道, 释放量达到 18.9 升/秒的瓦斯得到了安全处 理。如果抽出式风扇风筒滞后,使用该系统,在正常生产期间可能会形成循环风流,因此应经常保持抽 出式风筒入口超过稀释风机进风口。同时,如果抽出式风扇由于某种故障停止运行,并且采煤机继续在

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运行,那么就会在扩散式风机附近产生循环风,并可能产生瓦斯聚集,这是很危险的。

New Word and Expressions
Face 工作面 blind 不通的(巷道) entry 水平巷道,主平巷(美国烟煤地区名称) ;通向地面的通风巷道(煤) active entry 生产煤巷 adit entry 平硐 air entry 风巷 crosscut 石门;短联络横巷 brattice 风障 auxiliary fan 局部通风机 open 连通的 air leakage 漏风 heading 平巷 blowing (or blower) system 压入式系统 exhaust system 抽出式系统 gas up 瓦斯积聚 methane buildup 瓦斯积聚

Questions
1. When using line brattice for face ventilation, what are the advantages and disadvantages of blowing system and exhaust system? Which system is rare used toady? 2. When using auxiliary fan for face ventilation, what are the advantages and disadvantages of blowing system and exhaust system? Which system is rare used toady?

Assignment
Please translate the last paragraph of this text into Chinese.

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LESSON

4 Mechanical Ventilation

[教学内容] Fan Laws(风机运行规律)、 Fan in series (串联风机) 、 Fans in Parallel (并联风机) 、 Selection of Fans(选择风机) [教学目的] 通过该部分学习, 要求学生熟记 axial-flow fan 轴流式风机、 centrifugal fan 离心式风机、 variable-pitch 可变安装角、 characteristic curve 特性曲线、 blade 叶片、 power output 输出功率、 power input. 输入功率等专业词汇, 达到英文与中文相互熟练翻译的程度; 深入 Fan Laws(风机运行规律)、 Fan in series (串联风机) 、 Fans in Parallel (并联风机) 等内容, 达到熟练阅读和正确、 通顺地翻译的程度; 了解 Selection of Fans(选择风机)等内容,达到比较熟练和比较通顺翻译的程度。 [教学重点、难点] Fans in series(串联风机) [课时安排] 1 [授课方法] 讲授与讨论相结合 [教学过程]

一、复习旧课
1.回忆entry、crosscut、brattice专业词汇的中文含义;漏风、瓦斯积聚、压入系统、抽出系统的英 文表达。 2.When using line brattice for face ventilation, what are the advantages and disadvantages of blowing system and exhaust system? Which system is rare used toady?

二、教授新课
The application of fans to induce airflow is common in the mining industry. The majority of modern mine fans are the axial-flow type. However, many centrifugal fans still are in use and may be preferred for some applications. The general fan laws are the same for either axial-flow or centrifugal fans. The only differences are in the individual characteristics of power, pressure and air volumes. (*教学手段:have a student read above paragraph ,then explain how translate it in Chinese.) 在采矿业中,普遍(词类转换:形容词转换为副词)应用风机产生风流。矿上的新式(正反处理法: 名词性前置定义的次序颠倒)风机大多数都是轴流式的。然而,许多离心式风机仍在使用中,它们也许 是一些应用的首选。不论是轴流式扇风机还是离心式扇风机,其一般规律都是相同的。它们的不同处仅 仅是功率、压力和风量的个体特性。 (※教学手段:在翻译第一句和第二句中,分别应用我们讲过的翻译技巧词类转换和正反处理法来 翻译。[复习]词类转换译法:为适应汉语的表达习惯或为了达到某种修辞目的,适当地改变英语中某些 词的词类。正反处理译法(亦称反译法) ,系指翻译时从反面着笔把原意表达出来。由于英美人和我们中 国人的思维习惯不完全相同,英汉两种语言的表意方式也有很大差别,所以有时英语从正面表达一个思 想内容,汉译时则可能需要、甚至必须从反面来表达才符合汉语的表达习惯和事理逻辑。科技英语的发

展趋向之一就是越来越多地使用各种类型的名词性前置定语。这种名词性定语、尤其是名词和其它此类 构成的词组定语中,修饰语往往比较具体,被修饰语比较抽象,这和汉语的名词性定语的层次相反。因 此,翻译时就无法恪守原文的词序,而需要反过来才能表达出原意,才能符合汉语的表达逻辑和事理本 身的逻辑。 )
Fan Laws---- These are as follows: 风机的规律如下: (参见通风安全学 67 页比例定律) 1. Air quantity varies directly as fan speed [1]. Quantity is independent of air density (twice the volume requires twice the speed). 1. 风量和风机转速成正比。风量和风流的密度无关(风量要增大到两倍需要转速增大到两倍) 。 1[注]: vary directly as “和……成正比” , 也可以直接用 vary as….。 “和…..成反比” 则为: vary inversely as….... 2. Pressures induced vary directly as fan speed squared, and directly as density (twice the volume develops four times the pressure).
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2.产生的压力和风机转速平方成正比,与密度成正比(风量增大到两倍引起压力增大到四倍) 。 3. The fan power-input varies directly as the fan speed cubed and directly as the air density (twice the volume requires eight time the power). 3. 风机输入功率和风机转速的立方成正比, 与密度成正比 (风量增大到两倍需要功率增大到八倍) 。 4. The mechanical efficiency of the fan is independent of fan speed and air density. 4.风机的机械效率与风机转速和风流密度无关。 (*教学手段:Ask all the students to translate the above italic sentence into Chinese by themselves. After 3 minutes, have three students read their translation. Then ask the other students to select the best translation.) Selection of Fans----The performance of a fan in a ventilating system is determined by its characteristic curve and the mine resistance if acting alone on the system, and by its characteristic curve, characteristic of other pressure sources, and the resistance of individual zones of influence if acting in combination with other pressure sources. Fan characteristics are a matter of design, which is controlled by the manufacturer. The resistance of the mine is a matter of layout and maintenance of the ventilating network, and is controlled by the mine operator. 在通风系统中,如果一台风机单独运行, 那么该风机的性能决定于它的特性曲线和矿 井的阻力;如果风机和其它压力源联合运行,那么该风机的性能决定于它的特性曲线、其它压力源的特 性和自身影响区域的阻力。风机特性与设计有关,这由制造厂家所控制。矿井阻力与通风网络的布置和 维护有关,这由矿上人员所控制。 The amount of airflow induce in a mine will depend on fan characteristic and mine resistance. The pressure (H) required to pass a quantity (Q) through a mine or segment of a mine is expressed by the common formula H=RQ2, where R , the resistance factor, may be calculated from known pressure losses or from the common formula. 在矿井中所产生的风量依赖于风机特性和矿井阻力。通过矿井或矿井区段的风量所需的风压 H 是通 过公式 H=RQ2 表示的。公式中的 R 为阻力因数,可以由已知的压力损失计算得出,也可以由通用的公 式计算得出。 Mine fans are available to suit most conditions of mine resistance and desired volume relationships. Modern axial-flow fans are built with variable-pitch blades that permit a wide range of application for the single fan. The various blade settings permit the same fan to operate through a wide range of mine-resistance relationships. (*教学手段:have a student read above paragraph ,then explain how translate it in Chinese.) 矿井可用的风机能够满足大多数矿井阻力条件和所需风量间的关系。新式轴流式风机安装有可变安 装角的叶片,这就使单个风机的应用范围更为广泛。不同的叶片设置可使同一风机能够运行在矿井阻力 关系变化大的情况下运行。 All fan-performance data are based upon a standard density of 0.075 pcf. At altitudes where the air density is substantially less than standard, corrections must be applied on the basis of the true density. 所有性能的数据是以建立在标准密度为 0.075 磅的基础上的。在某一高度,当空气的密度远低于该 标准时,必须以真实密度为基础对数据进行修正。 注:pcf=pounds per cubic foot 磅/立方英尺 substantially:很多的; 大量的 The efficiency of the fan is power output divided by power input. The power input is the actual horsepower used to drive the fan rotor and equals the measured motor horsepower, less any shaft or belt losses . The power output of the fan is measured in air horsepower, which is the total fan pressure (P) in pounds per square foot times the air quantity in cubic feet per minute, divided by 33 000. Since 33 000 ft 1b equals 1 hp, air horsepower equals (P×q)/33 000. For convenience, since most measurements are in inches of water, the pressure P is changed to H (pressure in inches of water); and since H=P/5.2, P=H×5.2. Substituting this in the formula, air horsepower=(H × 5.2 × q )/33 000. Simplifying it further, air horsepower=(H × q)/6 350 for practical applications. 风机的效率指的是风机输出功率除以输入功率。风机的输入功率指的是用以启动风机转子所需的实 际马力,它等于所测出电动机马力减去轴损失或皮带带动损失。风机的输出功率是以空气的马力来度量

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的, 它等于压力 (P, 单位为磅/平方英尺) 乘以风量 (单位为立方英尺/分) , 再除以 33000。 因为 33000 英尺*磅等于 1 马力,所以风流的马力等于 P×q/33000. 因为大多数压力是以水柱英寸数度量的,所以 为方便起见,压力 P 变为 H(以水柱英寸数为单位的压力) 。由于 H=P/5.2,所以 P=H×5.2,将此代 入公式, 空气马力=(H×5.2×q )/33 000。 将其进一步简化, 空气马力在实际中应用的公式为 H×q/6350。 注:horsepower 常简写为 HP 马力为美国习惯体系中的功率单位,相当于 745.7 瓦特或 33,000 英尺磅/分. Fan in series----Fan operating in series are those operating on the same flow circuit, each handling the total flow of the circuit and each generating a part of the total pressure required to balance the pressure losses of circuit. Any number of fans can be used. The advantage of fans in series is that where resistance to flow is high more efficient distribution and better operating conditions may be obtained. 串联风机——串联运行的风机指的是运行在同一风路中的风机,每个扇风机通过风路中的整个流量 并产生需要的一部分总分压以补偿风路压力的损失。使用风机的数目可以是任意的。串联风机的优点是 风路阻力高的地方能够得到有效的阻力分布和较好的运行条件。 The flow conditions for series operations are determined by mine resistance and the combined pressure characteristic of the fans, obtained by plotting the sum of the pressure for the same quantity. 串联运行的流动条件决定于矿井阻力和风机的联合压力特性(通过连接同风量下压力之和的点得 到) 。 Unless the two fans are properly selected for the work to be done in series operation, they will not operate together at maximum efficiency and the results will be disappointing. The mine-resistance curve must intercept the combined characteristic curve of both fans. 除非对运行在串联中的两台风机进行适当地选择,否则它们联合运行的效率将没有达到最大,运行 结果将令人失望。矿井阻力曲线必须与两台风机联合运行的特性曲线相交。 Fans in Parallel----Fans may be used in parallel to increase the air volume against changed mine resistance. As a mine is developed and more air is needed, a common practice is to install an available fan in parallel with the operating fan. 并联风机——风机可并联使用以便在矿井阻力变化时增大风量。当矿井扩建和需要更多风量时,通 常做法安装一个可用风机使其与运行风机成并联形式。 Fans may be placed together to operate on the same airway or they may be on separate airways. When operating on the same airway, they act together on the total flow. The primary condition is that the pressure generated by each fan must equal the pressure loss sustained by the total volume they produce. The combined performance characteristic of fans acting in parallel at the same point in the system is obtained by plotting sum of the quantities handled at the same pressures against the pressures. The intersection of the system and the combined fan characteristics determine the pressure and, since the pressure must be the same for both fans, this pressure determines the relative quantities that each fan will produce. 风机可以安置在一起在同一风路中运行(集中并联) ,或者风机也可以在各自的风路中运行(对角并 联) 。当风机在同一风路中运行时,它们共同作用于总流量。主要条件每台风机产生的压力必须等于它们 产生的总风量所维持的阻力损失。并联工作的风机在同一点的联合工况特征可以通过连接在相同风压下 风量之和的点获得。系统和风机联合特性曲线的交叉点确定了压力,又因为两台风机的压力必须相等, 所以这个压力就确定了每台通风机将产生的相应风量。 If the mine-resistance curve does not intersect the combined characteristics, the higher pressure fan will handle more air alone than the two fans together, and if an attempt is made to operate them in parallel the high-pressure fan will reserve air through the low-pressure fan. 如果矿井阻力曲线与风机联合特性曲线不相交,那么高压风扇单独产生的风量多于两台风扇共同产 生的风量,如果企图使风扇并联工作,高压扇风机将使风流反向流过低压扇风机。 A common method of installing fans in parallel is to place them on separate airways. Where the resistances of the separate airways are comparatively large, little operating trouble is experienced. However, when the separate airway resistance is small, it is difficult to determine the resistance against which the fans must operate. Consequently, the characteristics of the separate, as well as of the combined, airways must be considered. 并联风机安装的普遍做法是把它们置于各自的风路中。当各自的风路阻力相当大时,不会导致大的 工作故障。然而,当各自风路阻力小时,难于确定扇风机必须克服的阻力。因此,风机的单独特性和联 合特性必须考虑风路。

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New Word and Expressions
axial-flow fan 轴流式风机 centrifugal fan 离心式风机 variable-pitch 可变安装角 characteristic curve 特性曲线 blade 叶片 power output 输出功率 power input. 输入功率

Questions Assignment
Please translate the last paragraph of this text into Chinese.

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LESSON

5 Mine Ventilation Systems

[教学内容] Fans、Stoppings and Seals、Doors and airlocks、Regulators、Air crossings [教学目的] 通过该部分学习,要求学生熟记a downcast shaft 进风竖井、drift 水平巷道、slope 斜 井、adit 平硐、intake airway 进风巷、return airway 回风巷、upcast shaft 回风竖井、stopping 风墙、 seal 密闭、stratum地层、spontaneous combustion 自燃、door 风门、airlock 风闸等专业词汇,达到英 文与中文相互熟练翻译的程度;深入理解Stoppings and Seals、Doors and airlocks等内容,达到熟练阅读 和正确、通顺地翻译的程度;了解S Regulators、Air crossings等内容,达到比较熟练和比较通顺翻译的程 度。 [教学重点、难点] Stoppings and Seals、Doors and airlocks [课时安排] 1 [授课方法] 讲授与讨论相结合 [教学过程]

一、复习旧课
1.回忆variable-pitch、blade专业词汇的中文含义;轴流式风机、离心式风机的英文表达。 2.Which factors influence the performance of a fan if acting alone on the system?

二、教授新课
Figure 1 depicts the essential elements of a ventilation system in an underground mine or other subsurface facility. Fresh air enters the system through one or more downcast shafts, drifts (slopes, adits), or other connections to surface. The air flows along intake airways to the working areas or places where the majority of pollutants are added to the air. These include dust and a combination of many other potential hazards including toxic or flammable gases, heat, humidity, and radiation. The contaminated air passes back through the system along return airways. In most cases, the concentration of contaminants is not allowed to exceed mandatory threshold limits imposed by law and safe for the entry of personnel into all parts of the ventilation system including return airways. The intake and return airways are often referred to simply as intakes and returns respectively. The return air eventually passes back to the surface via one or more upcast shafts, or through inclined or level drifts. Figure 1. Typical elements of a main ventilation system

图 1 描述了地下矿山或其他地下设施中通风系统的基本要素。新鲜空气通过一个或多个进风竖井、 巷道(斜井、平硐)或其他与地面相连的线路进入系统中。空气流经进风巷道,到达工作区域或地点, 那里大部分污染物混入到风流当中。这些污染物包括粉尘和许多其他具有潜在危险的物质组成的混合物 (包括有毒或可燃气体、热、湿气和辐射) 。污浊风流沿着回风巷道流经系统。大多数情况下,污染物的 浓度不允许超过法规规定的强制性的极限范围, 对包括回风在内的通风系统各部分的人员来说是安全的。

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进风巷道和回风巷道通常被简化为进风和回风。回风通过一个或多个回风竖井、倾斜或水平巷道排出到 地面。 Fans The primary means of producing and controlling the airflow are also illustrated on Figure 1. Main fans, either singly or in combination, handle all of the air that passes through the entire system. These are usually, but not necessarily, located on surface, either exhausting air through the system as shown on Figure 1 or, alternatively, connected to downcast shafts or main intakes and forcing air into and through the system. Because of the additional hazards of gases and dust that may both be explosive, legislation governing the ventilation of coal mines is stricter than for most other underground facilities. In many countries, the main ventilation fans for coal mines are required, by law, to be placed on surface and may also be subject to other restrictions such as being located out of line with the connected shaft or drift and equipped with "blow-out" panels to help protect the fan in case of a mine explosion. 图 1 也表示出了产生和控制风流的主要方法。主要通风机,单独或联合运行,控制流经整个系统的 所有风流。主要通风机通常(但不是必须的)安置在地面,或者如图 1 所示的那样抽出风流流过系统, 或者与进风竖井或主要进风道相连,压入风流进入和流经系统。由于煤矿瓦斯和粉尘都可能爆炸,这是 其他地下设施所不具有的危害,所以煤矿的保障通风的法规比其他地下设施要严格。许多国家的法规规 定,煤矿中的主要通风机必须安置在地面,并且还有其他一些限制,例如不安装在和竖井或巷道呈直线 的位置,配备冲击板(防爆门)以在煤矿发生爆炸时,起到保护风机的作用。 Stoppings and Seals In developing a mine, connections are necessarily made between intakes and returns. When these are no longer required for access or ventilation, they should be blocked by stoppings in order to prevent short-circuiting of the airflow. Stoppings can be constructed from masonry, concrete blocks or fireproofed timber blocks. Prefabricated steel stoppings may also be employed. Stoppings should be well keyed into the roof, floor and sides, particularly if the strata are weak or in coal mines liable to spontaneous combustion. Leakage can be reduced by coating the high pressure face of the stopping with a sealant material and particular attention paid to the perimeter. Here again, in weak or chemically active strata, such coatings may be extended to the rock surfaces for a few metres back from the stopping. In cases where the airways are liable to convergence, precautions should be taken to protect stoppings against premature failure or cracking. These measures can vary from "crush pads" located at the top of the stopping to sliding or deformable panels on prefabricated stoppings. In all cases, components of stoppings should be fireproof and should not produce toxic fumes when heated. 风墙和密闭 矿山在开采过程中,进风和回风之间需要一些连接设施。当巷道不再需要通过或通风,那么应用风 墙封闭,以防止风流短路。构筑风墙的材料为砖石、混凝土或耐火木材。另外,也使用预先制成的钢制 风墙。风墙应充分楔入顶板、地板和四周,尤其当岩层松软或者煤矿易发生自燃的情况下。在风墙压力 高的一面涂上一层密封剂,并特别注意其周界,那么漏风会减少。这里同样,在松软和化学活性强的岩 层中,这种涂层应延伸到岩层表面距风墙后面几米处。在风路易于集中的情况下,应采取预防措施来保 护风墙,以避免过早出现故障或者破裂。这些措施从在风墙的顶部安置压垫到在预制风墙上安置滑动的 或可变形的面板。在所有情况下,风墙的组成成分是防火的,当加热时不应产生有毒烟气。 注:strata 为 stratum 的复数形式, 【地质学】 地层:组成成份大致相同的沉积岩的岩床或岩层 As a short term measure, fire-resistant brattice curtains may be tacked to roof, sides and floor to provide temporary stoppings where pressure differentials are low such as in locations close to the working areas. 作为一种短期措施,风障帘被固定在顶板、四周和底板,形成一种临时密闭,这用于压差小的地方, 例如开采区域的附近位置。 Where abandoned areas of a mine are to be isolated from the current ventilation infrastructure, seals should be constructed at the entrances of the connecting airways. If required to be explosion-proof, these consist of two or more stoppings, 5 to 10 metres apart, with the intervening space occupied by sand, stone dust, compacted non-flammable rock waste, cement-based fill or other manufactured material. Steel girders, laced between roof and floor add structural strength. Grouting the surrounding strata adds to the integrity of the seal in weak ground. In coal mines, mining law or prudent regard for safety may require seals to be explosion-proof. 当矿井报废区域需要同现有基本通风结构隔离,应在连接风道的入口处构造密闭。如果要求密闭具 有防爆性,它们应由两个或多个间距为 5~10 米的风墙组成,在风墙之间的区域填充沙、石粉、紧密的不 燃岩石废料、以水泥为基础的填充物或其他人造材料。钢梁架在顶板和底板之间,以增加结构强度。用 薄灰浆填塞岩层周围,增加了松软地面上密闭的完整性。煤矿中,矿业法规或谨慎的安全考虑可能要求 密闭为防爆的。

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Doors and airlocks Where access must remain available between an intake and a return airway, a stopping may be fitted with a ventilation door. In its simplest form, this is merely a wooden or steel door hinged such that it opens towards the higher air pressure. This self-closing feature is supplemented by angling the hinges so that the door lifts slightly when opened and closes under its own weight. It is also advisable to fit doors with latches to prevent their opening in cases of emergency when the direction of pressure differentials may be reversed. Contoured flexible strips attached along the bottom of the door assist in reducing leakage, particularly when the airway is fitted with rail track. 风门和风闸 当进风和回风之间必须通行时,在风墙上应安装一个通风门。最简单的形式是装有铰链的木制或钢 制风门,能够在风流压力大的一侧开启。使铰链形成角度补充了这种半关闭特性,从而使风门打开时有 轻微地提升,在自身的重力下关闭。建议在风门上安装插销,以防止在压差方向反向的紧急情况下,风 门被打开。沿着风门的底部缚上具有特定断面形状的柔韧性条带,有助于减少漏风,尤其当风路上铺有 轨道时。 Ventilation doors located between main intakes and returns are usually built as a set of two or more to form an airlock. This prevents short-circuiting when one door is opened for passage of vehicles or personnel. The distance between doors should be capable of accommodating the longest train of vehicles required to pass through the airlock. For higher pressure differentials, multiple doors also allow the pressure break to be shared between doors. 安设在主要进风和回风之间的通风门通常构建为两道或多道,形成了风闸。这防止了当一道风门打 开让车辆和人员通行时风流短路。风门之间的距离应能够容纳需通过风闸的交通工具中的最长列车。压 差高时,多层风门也使压力突变均分到各风门上。 Mechanized doors, opened by pneumatic or electrical means are particularly convenient for the passage of vehicular traffic or where the size of the door or air pressure would make manual operation difficult. Mechanically operated doors may, again, be side-hinged or take the form of rollup or concertina devices. They may be activated manually by a pull-rope or automatic sensing of an approaching vehicle or person. Large doors may be fitted with smaller hinged openings for access by personnel. Man-doors exposed to the higher pressure differentials may be difficult to open manually. In such cases, a sliding panel may be fitted in order to reduce that pressure differential temporarily while the door is opened. Interlock devices can also be employed on an airlock to prevent all doors from being opened simultaneously. 机械风门由气动力或电力开启,这对于车辆通行尤其方便,对于由于风门尺寸小或空气压力造成手 动操作困难的情况下很便利的。机械操作风门也可以是一侧装铰链的形式,还可以呈手工卷制的雪茄烟 或六角手风琴形式。它们可以通过拖绳人工操作,也可以自动感觉接近的车辆或人员。大型风门安装有 带铰链的小门供人员通行。暴露在较高压差下的人门人工开启可能困难。这种情况下,安装一滑动面板, 当风门打开时能暂时减小压差。在风闸上也应采用互锁装置,以阻止所有风门同时被打开。 Regulators A passive regulator is simply a door fitted with one or more adjustable orifices. Its purpose is to reduce the airflow to a desired value in a given airway or section of the mine. The most elementary passive regulator is a rectangular orifice cut in the door and partially closed by a sliding panel. The airflow may be modified by adjusting the position of the sliding panel manually. Louvre regulators can also be employed. Another form of regulator is a rigid duct passing through an airlock. This may be fitted with a damper, louvres or butterfly valve to provide a passive regulator or a fan may be located within the duct to produce an active regulator. Passive regulators may be actuated by motors, either to facilitate their manual adjustment or to react automatically to monitored changes in the quantity or quality of any given airflow. When the airflow in a section of the mine must be increased to a magnitude beyond that obtainable from the system then this may be achieved by active regulation. This implies the use of a booster fan to enhance the airflow through that part of the mine. Section 9.6 deals with the subject of booster fans in more detail. Where booster fans are employed, they should be designed into the system such that they help control leakage without causing undesired recirculation in either normal or emergency situations. In some countries, coal mine legislation prohibits the use of booster fans. Air crossings Where intake and return airways are required to cross over each other then leakage between the two must be controlled by the use of an air crossing. The sturdiest form is a natural air crossing in which the horizon of

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one of the airways is elevated above the other to leave a sill of strata between the two, perhaps reinforced by roof bolts, girders or timber boards. A more usual method is to intersect the two airways during construction, then to heighten the roof of one of them and/or excavate additional material from the floor of the other. The two airstreams can then be separated by horizontal girders and concrete blocks, or a steel structure with metal or timber shuttering. Sealants may be applied on the high pressure side. Control of the airway gradients approaching the air crossing reduces the shock losses caused by any sudden change of airflow direction. Man-doors can be fitted into the air-crossing for access. Completely fabricated air crossings may be purchased or manufactured locally. These can take the form of a stiffened metal tunnel. Such devices may offer high resistance to airflow and should be sized for the flow they are required to pass. They are often employed for conveyor crossings. Another type of air crossing used mainly for lower airflows and which requires no additional excavation is to course one of the airstreams through one or more ducts that intersect a stopping on either side of the junction. An advantage of this technique is that the ducted airflow may be further restricted by passive regulators or up-rated by fans in the ducts. In all cases, the materials used in the construction of air crossings should be fireproof and capable of maintaining their integrity in case of fire. Neither aluminium nor any other low melting-point or combustible material should be employed in an air crossing.

New Word and Expressions
downcast shaft 进风竖井 drift 水平巷道:穿过矿脉或与矿脉平行的矿井中水平或近似水平的巷道 slope 斜井 adit 平硐 intake airway 进风巷 return airway 回风巷 upcast shaft 回风竖井 "blow-out" panel 冲击板(防爆门) stopping 风墙 seal 密闭 stratum【地质学】 地层:组成成份大致相同的沉积岩的岩床或岩层 spontaneous combustion 自燃 door 风门 airlock 风闸

Questions Assignment
Please translate the last two paragraphs of this text into Chinese.

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LESSON

6 Fundamentals of Ventilation Network Analysis 通风网络分析的基本原理

[教学内容] Kirchhoff's Laws、Compressible or incompressible flow in ventilation network analysis [教学目的] 通过该部分学习,要求学生熟记 ventilation network 通风网络、dead-end 独头巷道、 junction (node) 节点、mass flow 质量流量、volume flow 体积流量、mesh 网孔、datum【测】基点线, 基 准面、 specific volume 比容、 barometric 大气压力的、 loop 回路、 kinetic energy 动能、 NVE=natural ventilation energy 自然通风能量、NVP=natural ventilation pressure 自然风压等专业词汇,达到英文与中 文相互熟练翻译的程度;深入理解 Kirchhoff's Laws 等内容,达到熟练阅读和正确、通顺地翻译的程度; 了解 Compressible or incompressible flow in ventilation network analysis 等内容,达到比较熟练和比较通顺 翻译的程度。 [教学重点] Kirchhoff's Laws [教学难点] Compressible or incompressible flow in ventilation network analysis [课时安排] 1.5 [授课方法] 讲授与讨论相结合 [教学过程]

一、复习旧课
1.回忆downcast shaft、upcast shaft、adit专业词汇的中文含义;进风巷、回风巷、风墙、密闭的英 文表达。 2.What is the function of "blow-out" panels equipped in a fan?( to help protect the fan in case of a mine explosion) 3. When intakes or returns are no longer required for access or ventilation, which connection should be selected to block them? What’s its function? (stoppings in order to prevent short-circuiting of the airflow)

二、教授新课
Any integrated ventilation system can be represented as a schematic diagram in which each line (branch) denotes either a single airway or a group of openings that are connected such that they behave effectively as a single airway. Only those airways that contribute to the flow of air through the system appear on the network schematic. Hence, sealed-off areas of insignificant leakage, stagnant dead-ends and headings that are ventilated locally by ducts and auxiliary fans need not be represented in the network. On the other hand, the tops of shafts or other openings to surface are connected to each other through the pressure sink of the surface atmosphere. The points at which branches connect are known simply as junctions or nodes. (*教学手段:have a student read above paragraph ,then explain how translate it in Chinese.) 任何一个完整的通风系统都可以用一个示意图来表示,在该示意图中每条线(分支)不是代表一个 单独的风道就是代表一组连接在一起的巷道 (其行为实际上可视为一条单独巷道) 。 仅仅那些流过系统风 流的风道显示在网络示意图中。因此,漏风可忽略的密闭区域、风流停滞的独头巷道和通过管道和辅助 通风机进行局部通风的巷道不需要在网络中表示。另一方面,立井的顶端或者其他通向地面的巷道连接 起来,压力为地面大气压。分支相连接的点简称为交叉点或者节点。 Kirchhoff's Laws Gustav R. Kirchhoff (1824-1887) was a German physicist who first recognized the fundamental relationships that govern the behaviour of electrical current in a network of conductors. The same basic relationships, now known as Kirchhoff's Laws, are also applicable to fluid networks including closed ventilation systems at steady state. (*教学手段:Ask all the students to translate the above italic sentence into Chinese by themselves. After 6 minutes, have three students read their translation. Then ask the other students to select the best translation.) 基尔霍夫定律 古斯塔夫.罗伯特. 基尔霍夫(1824-1887)是一位德国物理学家,他首先认识到支配导体网络中电流

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流动的基本关系。这种基本关系,现在为著名的基尔霍夫定律,也适用于流体网络,包括闭和的稳定流 动的通风系统。 Kirchhoff's first law states that the mass flow entering a junction equals the mass flow leaving that junction or, mathematically,

?M ? 0
j

(1)

where M are the mass flows, positive and negative, entering junction j. 基尔霍夫第一定律说明了流入某交叉点的质量流量等于流出该交叉点的质量流量,或者用澳门威尼斯人网址形式 表示为: 式中,M 表示进入或流出节点 j 的质量流量,符号为正或负。 However, it will be recalled that M = Qρ kg/ s where Q = volume flow (m3/s) and ρ = air density (kg/m3). Hence (2)

? Q? ? 0
j

(3)

In subsurface ventilation systems, the variation in air density around any single junction is negligible, giving

?Q ? 0
j

(4)

然而,M 经常表示为: 式中,Q=体积流量(m3/s) ;ρ=空气密度(kg/m3)。因此, 在地下通风系统中,任一节点周围空气密度的变化可以忽略不计,得出: This provides a means of checking the accuracy of airflow measurements taken around a junction . 这提供了一种检验节点周围风流测定的精确性。 The simplest statement of Kirchhoff's second law applied to ventilation networks is that the algebraic sum of all pressure drops around a closed path, or mesh, in the network must be zero, having taken into account the effects of fans and ventilating pressures. This can be quantified by writing down the steady flow energy equation, initially for a single airway.

?u 2 ? ?Zg ? W ? ? VdP ? F 2

J/kg

(5)

应用于通风网络的基尔霍夫第二定律最简单的形式为:把风机和其它压力源的影响考虑在内,网络 中一个闭和回路或者网孔中所有压差的代数和必等于零。这可以通过稳定流动的能量方程式把其量化, 最初是一个风道的能量方程式。 where u = air velocity (m/s), Z = height above datum (m), W= work input from fan (J/kg) , V = specific volume (m3/kg), P= barometric pressure (Pa) and F = work done against friction (J/kg). 式中,u=风速,Z=基准面上的高度,W=风机的输入功,V=比容,P=大气压力,F=克服阻力所做的 功。 If we consider a number of such branches forming a closed loop or mesh within the network then the algebraic sum of all △Z must be zero and the sum of the changes in kinetic energy, △u2/2, is negligible. Summing each of the remaining terms around the mesh, m, gives

? ? VdP ? ? ( F ? W ) ? 0
m m

J/kg

(6)

如果我们考虑网络内形成闭和回路或网孔的所有分支, 那么△Z 的代数和一定等于 0, 并且动能变化

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之和可以忽略。把网孔 m 剩余的项求和,得出: Now the summation of ? Vdp terms is the natural ventilating energy, NVE, that originates from thermal additions to the air . Hence, we can write

?

? (F ? W ) ? NVE ? 0
?

J/kg

(7)

因为 ? Vdp 项之和表示自然通风能量 NVE(由气流得热力加成作用引起) ,所以我们可写成: This may now be converted to pressure units by multiplying throughout by a single value of air densityρ:

? (?F ? ?W ) ? ?NVE ? 0

Pa

(8)

式中每一项都乘以空气密度,可转化为压力单位 However, ρF =p (frictional pressure drop), ρW = pf(rise in total pressure across a fan) andρNVE = NVP (natural ventilating pressure), each of these three terms being referred to the same (standard) density. The equation then becomes recognizable as Kirchhoff's second law:

?( p ? p

f

) ? NVP ? 0

Pa

(9)

然而,ρF =p (摩擦阻力损失), ρW = pf(风机引起得总压力增加量) andρNVE = NVP (自然风压), 这 三项都是基于相同(标准)密度下。那么该式可改为公认的基尔霍夫第二定律: (补充:我们在通风安全

学第四章把其称为能量平衡定律:任一闭合回路中,各分支的通风阻力代数和等于该回路中通风机风压 与自然风压的代数和,式中表示能量的符号 p 我们常用 h)
This is the relationship that is employed as a quality assurance check on a pressure survey , or as a means of determining a value for the natural ventilating pressure. 这种关系可作为检查压力测定的质量保证,或者作为确定自然风压的方法。 Compressible or incompressible flow in ventilation network analysis Kirchhoff's laws can be applied to fluid networks that conduct either compressible or incompressible fluids. In the former case, the analysis is carried out on the basis of mass flow. Equations (1) or (3) are employed for the application of Kirchhoff's first law and equation (7) for Kirchhoff's second law. 通风网络分析中的可压缩或不可压缩流动 基尔霍夫可应用于可压缩或不可压缩流体的网络。在早期情况下,分析是以质量流量为基础。公式 1 或 3 作为基尔霍夫第一定律的应用,公式 7 作为基尔霍夫第二定律的应用。

There is another set of equations that must be incorporated with Kirchhoff's laws for ventilation network analysis. Those have already been introduced as the square law for each individual branch. When the flow is deemed to be compressible, then the rational form of the square law should be utilized: p = RtρQ2 Pa

where Rt = rational turbulent resistance (m-4) . But, as p = Fρ, p = Fρ=RtρQ2 giving F = RtQ2 J/kg (10)

Kirchhoff's second law for compressible flow (7)) becomes

? (R Q
t m

2

? W ) ? NVE ) ? 0

J/kg

(11)

通风网络中分析中另有一套公式应当和基尔霍夫定律组成一体。这作为平方定律(补:我们称为完 全紊流下的摩擦阻力定律)引入到每个个体分支。当认为流体为可压缩的,那么应使用平方定律合适的 形式: p = RtρQ2 Pa

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式中 Rt=合理的紊流阻力;因为 p = Fρ p = Fρ=RtρQ2, 给出: F = RtQ2 J/kg 应用在可压缩流体的基尔霍夫第二定律变为:

? (R Q
t m

2

? W ) ? NVE ) ? 0

J/kg

As we progress from branch to branch around a closed mesh in a network then it is the algebraic values of the pressure drops, p, or losses of mechanical energy, F, that must be summed. These are both positive in the direction of flow and negative if the flow is moving against the direction of traverse around the mesh. Hence, equation (11) may, more appropriately, be written as

? ( R Q Q ? W ) ? NVE ? 0
t m

J/kg

(12)

当我们沿着网络中网孔逐分支前进时,压差 p 或者机械能损失 F 的代数值应加起来。这些值与网孔 方向相同取“+” ,相反取“-” 。因此,式 11 更合适的形式为:

? ( R Q Q ? W ) ? NVE ? 0
t m

J/kg

(12)

where Q = airflow with due account taken of sign (± m3/s) and Q = absolute value of airflow and is always positive (+m3 /s). This device ensures that the frictional pressure drop or loss of mechanical energy always have the same sign as airflow. In the case of incompressible flow, the application of Kirchhoff's laws becomes more straightforward. Equations (4) and (9) give Q ? 0 (Kirchhoff I)

?
j

and

? ( RQ Q ? p
m

f

) ? NVP ? 0 (Kirchhoff II)

(13)

where R = Atkinson resistance (Ns2/m8). 式中,Q=风量,应该加上符号为(± m3/s); Q =风量的绝对值,总为正。这种策略保证了摩擦阻力 损失或者机械能损失和风量的符号总是相同。 对于不可压缩流体,基尔霍夫定律的应用变得更为简单了。由公式 4 和 9 得出: 式中,R=阿特金森阻力。 It will be recalled that the three terms of this latter equation should each be referred to the same (standard) value of air density, normally 1.2 kg/m3. 后一公式的三项通常指的是相同(标准)密度下,一般为 1.2 kg/m3。 Computer programs have been developed for compressible flow networks. These require input data (pressures, temperatures, elevations and air quality parameters) from which variations in air density and natural ventilation effects may be calculated. On the other hand, where compressibility and natural ventilating effects need to be taken into account, there are means by which these can be simulated to an acceptable accuracy by an incompressible flow network program. For these reasons, the great majority of subsurface ventilation planning employ the simpler and faster incompressible flow programs. The more sophisticated and demanding compressible flow programs are required for compressed air (or gas) networks or for specialized applications in subsurface ventilation systems. The remainder of this chapter will concentrate on incompressible flow network analysis.

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New Word and Expressions
ventilation network 通风网络 dead-end 独头巷道 junction (node) 节点 mass flow 质量流量 volume flow 体积流量 mesh 网孔 datum【测】基点线, 基准面 specific volume 比容 barometric 大气压力的 loop 回路 kinetic energy 动能 NVE=natural ventilation energy 自然通风能量 NVP=natural ventilation pressure 自然风压

Questions
Please descripe Kirchhoff's three laws in English.

Assignment
Please translate the last two paragraphs of this text into Chinese.

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Part Ⅱ

Mine Safety

LESSON

7 Mine Gases 矿井气体

[教学内容] Introduction、General properties of gases、Gas accumulation and stratification、Gases derived from combustion processes、Gases from explosives、Natural occurrences of gases [教学目的] 通过该部分学习,要求学生熟记 propane 丙烷、carbon dioxide 二氧化碳、Stratification 分 层、Buoyancy 浮力、Turbulence 湍流、hydrocarbon 碳氢化合物(烃类) 、carbon monoxide 一氧化碳等 专业词汇,达到英文与中文相互熟练翻译的程度;深入理解 ntroduction、General properties of gases 等内 容,达到熟练阅读和正确、通顺地翻译的程度;了解 Gases derived from combustion processes、Gases from explosives、Natural occurrences of gases 等内容,达到比较熟练和比较通顺翻译的程度。 [教学重点、难点] General properties of gases [课时安排] 1 [授课方法] 讲授与讨论相结合 [教学过程]

一、复习旧课
1.回忆juction、barometric、NVP(NVE)专业词汇的中文含义;质量流量、体积流量的英文表达。 2.Please descripte Kirchhoff's first law and the Kirchhoff's applied in ventilation network in English. (the mass flow entering a junction equals the mass flow leaving that junction; The simplest statement of Kirchhoff's second law applied to ventilation networks is that the algebraic sum of all pressure drops around a closed path, or mesh, in the network must be zero, having taken into account the effects of fans and ventilating pressures.)

二、教授新课
Introduction It is generally assumed when referring to gases in the mining environment that the interest is in toxic gases, however, the concentration of nontoxic gases, such as oxygen, can be of importance. 引言 一提到矿山环境中的气体,人们一般相当然地关心有毒气体。然而,无毒气体的浓度,例如氧气, 也很重要。注: assumed 作相当然的 Gases in the mine environment come from different sources. The major concern about most gases is their toxicity to workers. If the concentration of and exposure time to a gas are sufficient, illness or death may result. 矿山中的气体来源很多。人们对大多数气体主要关注的是它们对工人产生的毒性。如果某种气体的 浓度足够大,人们暴露在该气体中的时间足够长,(注:多分支共干结构)就可能导致疾病或者死亡的产 生。 During an emergency when a toxic gas or gases are released into the workplace, the concentration of the toxins can exceed normal workplace standards. This situation may pose a short-term or acute risk because of the increased toxicity of the higher concentration. As well, the reduction of oxygen in the air may also pose a risk to life because oxygen is needed to sustain life. 当某种或几种有毒气体释放到工作场所这种突发事件发生时,毒素的浓度会超过工作场所的正常标 准。这种情况可能造成短期或严重的危险,因为它产生了高浓度的毒性物质。同时,空气中氧气的减少 对生命形成了危险,因为氧气是维持生命所必须的。

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(*教学手段:have a student read above paragraph ,then explain how translate it in Chinese.) General properties of gases The term gas refers to the physical state of a substance at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure that, when unconfined, expands to fill the space it occupies. At reduced temperatures or high pressures, a gaseous substance can exist in a different physical state. Examples include the liquid propane gas (LPG) and the solid dry ice that, at room temperature would be gaseous propane and carbon dioxide. 瓦斯的一般性质 术语气体指的是某物质在室温和标准大气压力下的物理状态,当不受约束时,气体能够膨胀,充满 它所占的空间。当温度降低或者压力升高时,气态物质能够以不同的物理状态存在。例如液态丙烷和固 态干冰在室温下将变成气态丙烷和二氧化碳。 Traditionally, mine rescue teaching about gas properties focused on the density of pure gases. However, gases in a workplace in emergency situations are often not pure, but are mixed with air and other gases. Pure gases seldom exist in the workplace. When they do, it is likely that the gas was released from a pressurized vessel discharging uncontrollably. Even a leak of pure, pressurized gas will not perform like a pure gas as the distance from the leaking vessel and turbulence increases. Eventually, the leaking gas will mix with the surrounding air as it moves away from the source of the leak. (*教学手段:Ask all the students to translate the above italic sentence into Chinese by themselves. After 12minutes, have three students read their translation. Then ask the other students to select the best translation.) 传统上讲,矿山救护在讲授气体性质时一般指的是纯气体的浓度。然而,在突发事件下进入工作地 点的气体通常不纯,而混入空气或者其他气体。纯净的气体很少在工作面存在。当确实存在时,很可能 是气体从受压容器在失控卸压时释放出来。即使纯的受压气体的泄露,随着离泄露容器的距离增加,涡 流的程度增强,其行为也不象纯的气体那样。最终,当泄露气体移离泄露地点时,它将混入周围的空气。 Stratification of gases does occur where the gas mixture has a significant difference in density from the surrounding air. A good example is the gases produced during a fire. Because of the heat of combustion, the gases that are released from burning material are hot and less dense than air at normal conditions. As a result, combustion gases generally rise. This mass of hot gas, or package, has a diffuse boundary and is lighter than the surrounding air. The fact that heated gas responds as an unconfined mass is readily visible from chimney smoke in cooler weather. The smoke has buoyancy and rises until the package of gas has mixed and cooled to the same point as the surrounding air. Because of turbulence and diffusion, the package of gas is diluted to the point where it differs little from air alone. 气体分层现象发生在气体混合物的密度与周围空气的密度有显著差别的地方。一个很好的例子就是 在火灾期间产生的气体。由于燃烧产生热,所以从燃烧物质释放的气体是灼热的,其密度比标准状态下 空气的密度小。因此,燃烧气体一般会上升。这种热空气团或束有一个扩散边界,比周围的空气轻。热 空气形成不受约束的团状这种事实在较冷的气候时, 从烟囱冒出的烟中可以很容易观察到。 烟具有浮力, 一直上升直到和周围空气混合,并且冷却到和空气同样的温度。由于湍流和扩散作用,气体束被稀释到 和空气自身差别很小。 There are other physical properties of gases, such as taste, colour, and odour, that may or may not be helpful as warning properties. For example, the property of colour is often best observed with pure gases. Workers may or may not be able to smell a gas (depending on its concentration). Therefore, in an emergency, these properties may serve little purpose in understanding the toxic nature of a gas when it has been mixed with mine air. 气体还有一些其他物理性质,例如味道、颜色、气味。这些性质作为预兆特性可能有用,也可能无 用。例如颜色特性通常最能观察道纯净气体。工人可能够闻到气体,也可能够闻不到气体,这取决于气 体的浓度。因此,在紧急情况下,这些特性作为了解混入矿山空气中气体的毒性意义不大。 Gas accumulation and stratification 瓦斯积聚和分层 Gases can collect in pockets separate from the rest of the mine air. This is especially true where mines lack adequate ventilation. Hot gases from a fire will rise to the back and remain there until the smoke has time to cool and mix with the air. Therefore, expect the smoke near a fire to be denser at the back. The smoke will be more uniformly distributed in a drift once it moves away from the fire and is mixed with the mine air by ventilation flows and turbulence. A second example of gas stratification is the distribution of methane in a coal mine. Pure methane has a relative density about one-half that of air and can be produced in massive quantities in an underground coal mine. Such large amounts of methane will physically displace the other mine air. Because of its low density, there may be pockets of methane that will tend to accumulate near the back.

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Small differences between the density of a gas and of air will not cause stratification. For example, oxygen is ten percent more dense than air. However, the oxygen will not be more concentrated near the floor in a room or a stope. It remains thoroughly mixed with the rest of the mine air. Gases derived from combustion processes 来自燃烧过程的气体 Burning organic material and hydrocarbon fuel results in the formation of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Generally, carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in larger quantities while carbon monoxide(CO) is produced in smaller amounts where combustion is not 100 percent efficient. 燃烧有机物质和烃类燃料生成一氧化碳和二氧化碳。一般来说,二氧化碳生成量较多,而当燃烧不 充分时,产生少量的一氧化碳。 Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and other oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and phosgene (COCI2) may be produced by combustion. Burning various plastic or synthetic materials will result in some production of these gases. Base metal mines, such as those that produce copper or zinc, get the metals from sulfide ores. In cases where sulphide ore catches fire after a production blast, a large quantity of sulphur dioxide will be produced. 燃烧可能产生 NO2 和其他氮类氧化物、SO2、氰化氢、碳酰氯。燃烧各种各样的塑料和合成物质会 产生这些气体。贱金属矿山,例如生产铜和锌的矿山,从硫化物矿石中获取金属。当产物爆炸后,硫化 物矿石着火时,会产生大量的二氧化硫。 Gases from explosives 来自爆炸的气体 The detonation of commercial explosives creates the same gases found from burning fuel. The presence of carbon and nitrogen in commercial explosives makes it likely that carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides will be produced from a blast. 商用炸药爆炸时,产生的气体和燃料燃烧时产生的气体相同。商用炸药中存有碳和氮,这就很可能 在爆炸时产生 CO、CO2 和氧化氮。 Natural occurrences of gases Hydrogen sulfide (H2S): Hydrogen sulfide in the mining environment is derived from water. The hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the water originates from bacterial decomposition of soluble sulfate in the water. Once the water enters the mine, hydrogen sulfide is released into the mine air in the absence of hydrostatic pressure. The solubility of hydrogen sulfide in water is relatively low at mine atmospheric pressures. When the water inflow area has restricted ventilation, hydrogen sulfide will build up in the area of the inflow. Levels of 100 ppm are rare in unventilated caverns with water inflows. Although 100 ppm is not an immediately lethal concentration, extended and unprotected exposure beyond one-half hour can lead to unconsciousness and, ultimately, death. Decomposition of organic material such as sewage can lead to the formation of hydrogen sulfide if sulphur compounds are in the decaying material. Water wells with intakes at the bottom of the reservoir have brought hydrogen sulfide into the pump house with deadly results for workers. Carbon dioxide (C02 ): Carbon dioxide is a natural metabolite produced in the human body and exhaled in the respiratory process. In sufficient concentration, naturally exhaled carbon dioxide is hazardous. The exhalation of carbon dioxide by workers in refuge stations can create hazards. A dead air space is commonly employed for refuge in underground potash mines. Hardrock mines commonly use much smaller refuge stations supplied with compressed air.. Methane (CH4 ) or natural gas: Methane is produced when organic matter decomposes. Methane is also produced when sewage or other organic matter is subject to stagnant conditions and bacterial action. Coal beds may also contain methane and release the gas when the bed is exposed during mining. Methane is very dangerous in underground coal mines where inadequate ventilation can result in concentrations of the gas building to explosive levels.

New Word and Expressions
propane 丙烷 carbon dioxide 二氧化碳 Stratification 分层 Buoyancy 浮力

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Turbulence 湍流 hydrocarbon 碳氢化合物(烃类) carbon monoxide 一氧化碳压

Questions Assignment
Please translate the last two paragraphs of this text into Chinese.

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LESSON

8 Coal seam methane 煤层瓦斯

[教学内容] Methane generation 、Methane retention in coal 、Methane drainage 、Methane usage [ 教学目的 ] 通过该部分学习,要求学生熟记 rank 品级、 bituminous 烟煤、 anthracite 无烟煤、 igneous[地] 火成的、natural fracture 原生裂隙、cleat【地质】割理、porosity 多孔性、sorptive 吸附 的、Permeability 渗透性、free gas 自由状态瓦斯、adsorbed gas 吸附状态瓦斯、voidage 孔隙度、 adsorption isotherm 吸附等温线、Methane drainage 瓦斯抽放等专业词汇,达到英文与中文相互熟练翻 译的程度;深入理解 Methane retention in coal 、Methane drainage 等内容,达到熟练阅读和正确、通顺地 翻译的程度;了解 Methane generation s、Methane usage 等内容,达到比较熟练和比较通顺翻译的程度。 [教学重点、难点] Methane retention in coal 、Methane drainage [课时安排] 1.5 [授课方法] 讲授与讨论相结合 [教学过程]

一、复习旧课
1.回忆 propane 、carbon dioxide 专业词汇的中文含义;氧气英文表达。 2.Please defines the term gas in English. (refers to the physical state of a substance at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure that, when unconfined, expands to fill the space it occupies)

二、教授新课
Methane generation Methane, carbon dioxide and water are generated as by-products of the coal formation process. The proportions of each gas produced vary during the process. 瓦斯的生成 瓦斯、二氧化碳和水是成煤过程中产生的副产品。成煤过程中生成各气体的比例是不一样的。 Most of the gas and water migrates away from the seam. However some gas is retained within the coal seam. The capacity of coal to retain carbon dioxide is much greater than for methane. However, the large quantities of methane produced during the formation of the high rank bituminous and anthracite coals flushed most of the carbon dioxide away. The bituminous coals of the Sydney and Bowen Basins typically contain gas consisting of over 95 per cent methane with smaller quantities of carbon dioxide, ethane, higher hydrocarbons, nitrogen and inert gases. The seams in some areas of the basins contain very high levels of carbon dioxide. This carbon dioxide was introduced later into the coal measure sequence by igneous activity replacing the methane preferentially. 大多数气体和水蒸气从煤层中散发出来。然而,一些气体保留在煤层当中。煤吸附二氧化碳的能力 比吸附瓦斯的能力强。然而,高品级的烟煤和无烟煤在形成过程中产生大量的瓦斯,把二氧化碳排挤出 去。有代表性的例子是悉尼和 Bowen 盆地的烟煤,其瓦斯含量超过 95%,剩下的是少量的二氧化碳、乙 烷、高类碳氢化合物、氮气和惰性气体。一些地区的煤层二氧化碳含量非常高。后来,在煤测定工序中, 优先使用二氧化碳的火成作用代替瓦斯。 There are three mechanisms by which gas is stored within the coal seams. 气体通过三种途径保存在煤层当中。 About 90 per cent of the gas is absorbed onto the coal surface within the matrix pore structure, the remainder exists as free gas in the natural fracture (cleat) systems of the seams or is dissolved within the seam water. 90%的气体是吸附在煤层表面的微孔矩阵结构中, 剩余的气体以自由状态存在于煤层的原生裂隙 (节 理)当中或者溶解到煤层的水中。 Gas which has migrated away from the seams is often trapped in the fractures and pore spaces within the

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roof and floor rocks. The capacity of coal to hold gas is dependent on porosity which in turn is related to rank, gas composition and gas pressure. A general relationship has been established that sorptive capacity (and therefore potential total gas content) increases with rank of the coal and with depth. Permeability of coal decreases with depth. 从煤层中散发出来的气体通常被捕获到顶、底板岩石的裂隙和微孔中。煤层保存气体的能力决定于 多孔性,这依次与品级、气体组成成分和气体压力有关。一般关系为:煤的品级越高,埋藏深度越深, 煤的吸附能力(潜在的总气体含量)越大。埋藏深度越深,渗透性越小。 Methane retention in coal 瓦斯在煤体中的存在状态 Methane exists within coal in two distinct forms, generally referred to as free gas and adsorbed gas. The free gas comprises molecules that are, indeed, free to move within the pores and fracture network. Porosities of coals have been reported from 1 to over 20 percent. However, those values depend upon the chosen definition of porosity and the manner in which it is measured. Absolute (or total) porosity is the total internal voidage divided by the bulk volume of a sample and may be difficult to measure accurately. Effective (or macroscopic) porosity is the ratio of interconnected void space to the bulk volume. The latter definition is more useful in the determination of recoverable gas from a seam. 存在于煤中的瓦斯有两种截然不同的形式,通常称为自由状态瓦斯和吸附状态瓦斯。自由状态瓦斯 由分子组成,这些分子实际上能够自由地在微孔中和裂隙网中移动。据报告,煤的孔隙率从 1%到 20% 以上。然而,这些数值的大小倚赖于孔隙率所选择的定义和它测量的方式。绝对(或总)孔隙率指的是 样品内部总的孔隙度除以体积;绝对孔隙率可能难以准确测量。有效(或者宏观)孔隙率指的是相互连 接空隙与总体积的比率。有效孔隙率在查明煤层中可利用瓦斯时比较有用。

An attractive force exists between the surfaces of some solids and a variety of gases. Coal surfaces attract molecules of methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapour and several other gases. Those molecules adhere or are adsorbed onto the coal surface. When the adsorptive bond exceeds the short-distance repulsive force between gas molecules, then the adsorbed molecules will become packed together as a monomolecular layer on the surface. At very high gas pressures, a second layer will form with a weaker adsorptive bond (Jolly, 1968). 吸引力存在于一些固体表面和各种气 体之间。煤的表面可吸引瓦斯、二氧化碳、 氮、 水蒸气和其他气体分子。 这些分子粘附 或吸附到煤的表面。 当吸附粘和力超过分子 间短距离的排斥力时, 吸收的瓦斯会积聚在 一起在煤的表面形成单分子层。 当瓦斯压力 大时, 较弱的吸附粘和力会形成另外一个分 子层。 Figure 1 illustrates the variation of both total and adsorbed methane with respect to Figure 1 Examples of adsorbed, free and gas pressure and at constant temperature. The total gas isotherms for methane in coal curve illustrating adsorbed methane is known as the adsorption isotherm. Some 95 percent of the total gas will, typically, be in the adsorbed form, explaining the vast reserves of methane that are contained within many coal seams. 图 1 描述了总瓦斯和吸收瓦斯在温度不变的情况下与瓦斯压力的变化关系。描述吸附瓦斯的曲线被 称为吸附等温线。典型的是,全部瓦斯中 95%是吸附形式的瓦斯,这就说明了许多煤层中的瓦斯储量很 大。

Methane drainage 瓦斯抽放 In order to drain methane from coal seams several different techniques are used. Within coal mines methane is drained ahead of the mining by drilling holes along the coal seams ahead of the mining. Boreholes

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from the surface are also drilled into the mined out areas to drain methane from collapsed areas. 为了抽放煤层中的瓦斯,可以使用几种不同的方法。煤矿中,开采前,沿煤层打钻孔,预抽煤矿中 的瓦斯。从地面往开采过的区域打钻孔,以抽放塌陷区域的瓦斯。 These methods of pre-drainage and postdrainage have only been partially successful in controlling the gas inflow into mines. Increases in coal production and the attendant increases in the depth of mining will result in even greater levels of methane and significant improvements in gas drainage will be required. 这些预抽和后抽的方法,只能部分成功地控制瓦斯涌入到煤矿中。煤矿产量的增加及随之而来的开 采深度的增大,将导致瓦斯等级更高,这就需要在瓦斯抽放方面取得重大的进展。 Surface pre-drainage techniques may be required to be provide a solution to mining problems and also provide a method of recovering the methane by itself for commercial uses. 地面预抽方法提供了一种解决开采问题的途径,同时提供了一种回收商业用途的瓦斯方法。 Fracturing the coal seams with hydraulic pressure within boreholes (hydraulic fracture stimulation) may represent the method of highest potential for the development of a methane drainge industry. 在钻孔内使用水压压裂煤层(水力压裂模拟)可以代替高电压的方法,这是瓦斯抽放行业中的进展。 The technique has yet to be successfully tested in Australia but if effective it will enable future mining areas to be drained prior to commencement of mining. 这种方法还没有在澳大利亚得到成功验证,但是如果它很有效,它将使未来开采的区域在开采前能 预先把瓦斯抽放出来。 The technique will also enable commercial production of large quantities of methane from both within and without the coal mining areas. Recent studies suggest that hydraulic fracture stimulation should be as effective in the Sydney Basin as in the Black Warrior Basin in the USA. 这种方法也将能够从煤矿开采区域内和开采区域外生产大量的商用的瓦斯。最近的研究表明水力压 裂模拟在悉尼盆地和美国的 Black Warrior 盆地很有效。 Methane usage 瓦斯用途 Coal seam methane has the potential for use as reticulated gas, as a fuel for generation of electricity and vehicles and as a feedstock for the production of methanol and chemicals such as ammonia, polymers, resins, cleaning materials, paint removers, herbicides, and fungicides. Methanol also has potential in the longer term as a vehical fuel. 煤层瓦斯潜在的用途为: 作为可循环的气体; 作为发电和车辆的燃料; 作为生产甲醇和化学制品 (例 如氨、聚合体、树脂、清洁剂、油漆去除剂、除草剂和杀真菌剂。甲醇也具有长期作为车辆燃料的潜能。 Gas burning, particularly methane, provides significant environmental advantages over fossil fuels such as coal and oil. The relatively lower yield of carbon dioxide per unit of energy produced when burning methane compared with oil and coal would help reduce the impact of the greenhouse effect if substantial fuel substitution can be achieved. Coalbed methane could be a long term replacement for Australia’s dwindling reserves of oil, particularly for transport fuels.

New Word and Expressions
rank 品级 bituminous 烟煤 anthracite 无烟煤 igneous[地] 火成的 natural fracture 原生裂隙 cleat【地质】割理 porosity 多孔性 sorptive 吸附的 Permeability 渗透性 free gas 自由状态瓦斯 adsorbed gas 吸附状态瓦斯 voidage 孔隙度 adsorption isotherm 吸附等温线 Methane drainage 瓦斯抽放

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Borehol 钻孔

Questions Assignment
Please translate the last two paragraphs of this text into Chinese.

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LESSON

9 Open Fires 明 火

[教学内容] Introduciton、Oxygen-rich and fuel-rich fires、Effects of fires on ventilation、 Methods of fighting open fires [教学目的] 通过该部分学习,conflagration 大火, 大火灾, 突发、compressor 压缩机、thrower【军】 投掷器, 喷射器, 发射器、combustible 易燃物;可燃物、earth [电]接地、smouldering 闷烧, 低温炼焦, 低 温干馏、propagation 蔓延、proliferate 增生蔓延、distilled 由蒸馏得来的、conveyor 运输机、gearhead 机 头、sprinkler system 自动喷水消防系统、high expansion foam 高倍膨胀泡沫等专业词汇,达到英文与中 文相互熟练翻译的程度;深入理解 Introduciton 、Methods of fighting open fires 等内容,达到熟练阅读和 正确、通顺地翻译的程度;了解 Oxygen-rich and fuel-rich fires、Effects of fires on ventilation 等内容,达 到比较熟练和比较通顺翻译的程度。 [教学重点、难点] Methods of fighting open fire [课时安排] 1.5 [授课方法] 讲授与讨论相结合 [教学过程]

一、复习旧课
1.回忆 porosity 、permeability、adsorption isotherm 专业词汇的中文含义;自由状态瓦斯、吸附状 态瓦斯、瓦斯抽放英文表达。 2.Which factors are related to porosity? (rank, gas composition and gas pressure.) 3. What’s the relationship betwteen sorptive capacity and rank of the coal and depth?

Introduction Fires that occur in mine airways usually commence from a single point of ignition. The initial fire is often quite small and, indeed, most fires are extinguished rapidly by prompt local action. Speed is of the essence. An energetic ignition that remains undetected, even for only a few minutes, can develop into a conflagration that becomes difficult or impossible to deal with. Sealing off the district or mine may then become inevitable. 发生在矿井风巷中的火灾通常开始于一点的燃烧。最初火势非常小,实际上只要能够及时地进行局 部处理,大多数火灾都能被立即扑灭。快速的行动是非常重要的。旺盛的燃烧如果未被发现,那么即使 只有几分钟,也能够发展为大火,从而很难或者不可能扑灭了。因而,封闭区域或者整个矿井可能变得 不可避免了。 The rate at which an open fire develops depends, initially, upon the heat produced from the igniting source. A fine spray of burning oil from a damaged air compressor can be like a flame thrower and ignite nearby combustibles within seconds. On the other hand, an earth leakage from a faulty cable may cause several hours of smouldering before flames appear. The further propagation of the fire depends upon the availability of fuel and oxygen. A machine fire in an untimbered metal mine airway will remain localized if there is little else to burn in the vicinity. Conversely, an airway that is heavily timbered or with coal surfaces in the roof, floor or sides will provide a ready path for speedy development and propagation of a fire. 明火发展的速度,最初取决于点火源产生的热量。从损坏的空气压缩机中喷出纤细的燃烧油的飞沫 就如同火焰喷射器一样,几秒内就能点燃附近的可燃物。另一方面,有故障的电缆造成的接地漏电可能 在几个小时的低温干馏后才出现火焰。火灾能够进一步蔓延取决于燃料和氧气的可利用性。如果临近可 燃物很少,在没有木材的金属矿山巷道中发生的机械火灾将停留在局部地区。相反,如果风巷中木材很 多或者顶底板及四周都有煤,那么发生火灾时发展速度快,能够进一步蔓延。 注:Vicinity:附近 When an open fire has developed to the extent of causing a measurable change in the temperature of the airflow then it can affect the magnitudes and distributions of flow within the mine ventilation system. Conversely, the availability of oxygen to the fire site controls the development of the fire. This Section discusses the coupled interaction between fire propagation and ventilation, and the means by which open fires in mines may be fought.

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当明火发展到可以测得气流温度发生变化时的程度,那么明火将影响矿山通风系统中风量的大小和 分布。相反,减少提供给火灾地点氧气能控制火灾的发展。本部分讨论了火灾蔓延和通风之间的相互关 系,和扑灭矿山火灾的方法。 注:coupled 连接的 Oxygen-rich and fuel-rich fires 氧气充足火灾和燃料充足火灾 At the start of most open fires in ventilated areas, there is a plentiful supply of oxygen ---more than sufficient for combustion of the burning material. Indeed, if the air velocity is brisk then heat may be removed at a rate greater than that at which it is produced. The heat side of the fire triangle is removed and the fire is "blown out". These are examples of oxygen-rich fires. Assuming that the fire continues to proliferate, it will consume increasing amounts of oxygen and, at the same time, produce greater volumes of distilled gases and vapours. The point may be reached when the heat of combustion produces temperatures that continue to remain high enough to distill gases and vapours from the coal, timber or other available fuels but with insufficient oxygen to burn those gases and vapours completely. The fire has then become fuel-rich. 通风区域发生的大部分明火,初期提供的氧气充足,多于正在燃烧着的物质所需的氧气。实际上, 如果风流速度很快,那么带走热量的速度比产生热量的速度要快。火灾三角形热量方面将消除,火灾会 被吹灭。这些是氧气充裕火灾的例子。假定火灾继续扩散,将消耗越来越多的氧气,同时,生成较多的 由蒸馏而来的气体和水蒸气。将会达到这种程度:燃烧热提供的温度一直很高,足以从煤、木材和其它 可利用燃料蒸馏出气体和水蒸气;但是提供的氧气不充足,不能充分燃烧这些气体和蒸气。这种类型的 火灾就成为燃料充足的火灾。 Effects of fires on ventilation 火灾对通风的影响 An open fire causes a sharp increase in the temperature of the air. The resulting expansion of the air produces two distinct effects. First the expansion attempts to take place in both directions along the airway. The tendency to expand against the prevailing direction produces a reduction in the airflow. This is known as the choke or throttle effect. Secondly, the decreased density results in the heated air becoming more buoyant and causes local effects as well as changes in the magnitudes of natural ventilating energy. 明火引起空气的温度急剧上升。因而引起的空气膨胀产生两个显著的影响。第一,膨胀试图发生在 沿风道的两个方向。逆着主流方向膨胀的趋势造成风量的减小。这被称为窒息作用。第二,密度的减小 使热空气变得更轻,产生局部影响,并且引起自然通风能量的变化。 resulting:作为结果的,因而发生的 Methods of fighting open fires 扑灭明火的方法 The majority of open fires can be extinguished quickly if prompt action is taken. This underlines the importance of fire detection systems, training, a well-designed firefighting system and the ready availability of fully operational firefighting equipment. Fire extinguishers of an appropriate type should be available on vehicles and on the upstream side of all zones of increased fire hazard. These include storage areas and fixed locations of equipment such as electrical or compressor stations and conveyor gearheads. 如果及时行动,大部分明火都能够扑灭。火灾探测系统、培训、设计良好的灭火系统和现成的能充 分运行的灭火设备很重要。合适型号的灭火器应安置在车辆上面和火灾危险大的所有区域的逆流侧。这 包括储藏室区域和设备的固定安装位置(例如电站或压缩机站和运输机的传送机头) 。 Neither water nor foam should be used where electricity is involved until it is certain that the power has been switched off. Fire extinguishers that employ carbon dioxide or dry powders are suitable for electrical fires or those involving flammable liquids. 电力火灾既不能用水也不能用泡沫灭火,除非确定电源已关。使用二氧化碳或干粉的灭火器适于扑 灭电力火灾或易燃液体火灾。 Deluge and sprinkler systems can be very effective in areas of fixed equipment, stores and over conveyors. These should be activated by thermal sensors rather than smoke or gas detectors in order to ensure that they are operated only when open combustion occurs in the near vicinity. 洪水和自动喷水系统在固定设备、储藏室和输送机上面这些地区很有效。这些装置要激活应通过热 力探测器而不是烟雾或瓦斯探测器,以确保只有当在邻近地区发生明火燃烧时才自动运转。 The two direct methods of firefighting introduced in this Section involve the application of water and high expansion foam.

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本部分介绍的两种直接灭火方法是用水和高倍膨胀泡沫。 Firefighting with water 用水灭火 Except where electricity or flammable liquids are involved, water is the most common medium of firefighting. When applied to a burning surface, water helps to remove two sides of the fire triangle. The latent heat of the water as it vapourises and the subsequent thermal capacity of the water vapour assist in removing heat from the burning material. Furthermore, the displacement of air by water vapour and the liquid coating on cooler surfaces help to isolate oxygen from the fire. 除了电力和可燃液体火灾外,水是灭火最常用的方法。当水应用在燃烧着表面时,它有助于消除火 灾三角形的两个方面。 水蒸发时具有的潜在热能和随后水蒸气的热力能帮助消除燃烧物质的热能。 此外, 水蒸气取代空气并且液体在较凉的表面形成覆盖层,这有助于隔绝氧气。 High expansion foam Large volumes of water-based foam provide a valuable tool for fighting fires in enclosed spaces such as the basements of buildings or in the holds of ships. It has been employed for mine fires since at least 1956 (Eisner). The method is employed on large fires and, although it has had somewhat limited success in extinguishing mine fires, it can play a valuable role in cooling and quenching an area to an extent that allows firefighters with hoses to approach closer to the firefront. Even when sealing an area has become inevitable, valuable time for rescue operations can be bought by employing high expansion foam.

New Word and Expressions
conflagration 大火, 大火灾, 突发 compressor 压缩机 thrower【军】投掷器, 喷射器, 发射器 combustible 易燃物;可燃物 earth [电]接地 smouldering 闷烧, 低温炼焦, 低温干馏 propagation 蔓延 proliferate 增生蔓延 distilled 由蒸馏得来的 conveyor 运输机 gearhead 机头 sprinkler system 自动喷水消防系统 high expansion foam 高倍膨胀泡沫

Questions Assignment
Please translate the last two paragraphs of this text into Chinese.

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LESSON

10 Spontaneous Combustion 自 燃

[教学内容] Introduction 、The phases of oxidation 、Susceptibility to spontaneous combustion、 Precautions against spontaneous combustion [教学目的] 通过该部分学习,要求学生熟记sulphide 硫化物、inhabit 阻止反应,减慢(反应的) 速度、oxidation 氧化作用、SHT -self-heating temperature 最低自热温度、exothermic [化]发热的, 放出热 量的、 chemisorption 化学吸附作用、 peroxy-complexe 过化合物、 oxalic acid 草酸、 aromatic acid 芳香酸、 gobstink采空区臭味、 Incineration 烧成灰、 susceptibility to spontaneous combustion自燃倾向性、 petrology 岩 石学、adiabatic [物]绝热的, 隔热的、goaf (gob) 采空区、friability 脆性、winning【矿】开采; 备采煤区、 pillar 支柱、per centage extraction 开采百分率、multi-lift 多分层、caving mining崩落开采法、gradient 倾 斜度等专业词汇,达到英文与中文相互熟练翻译的程度;深入理解The phases of oxidation 、Susceptibility to spontaneous combustion等内容,达到熟练阅读和正确、通顺地翻译的程度;了解Precautions against spontaneous combustion等内容,达到比较熟练和比较通顺翻译的程度。 [教学重点、难点] Susceptibility to spontaneous combustion [课时安排] 1.5 [授课方法] 讲授与讨论相结合 [教学过程]

一、复习旧课
1. 回忆 smouldering 、 distilled 专业词汇的中文含义; 大火 (conflagration) 、 易燃物; 可燃物 combustible 英文表达。 2.Please describe Effects of fires on ventilationin English. (produces a reduction in the airflow; causes local effects as well as changes in the magnitudes of natural ventilating energy.)

二、教授新课
Introduction When air is allowed to percolate through many organic materials including coal then there will be a measurable rise in temperature. The same phenomenon can be observed in crushed sulphide ores and is caused by a progressive series of adsorptive, absorptive and chemical processes. These produce heat and an observable elevation in temperature. The percolating airflow will, therefore, remove that heat increasingly as the temperature of the material rises. If the leakage airflow is sufficiently high then a balanced equilibrium will be reached at which the rate of heat removal is equal to the rate at which heat is produced; the temperature will stabilize. The process will also reach an air-constrained equilibrium if the airflow is sufficiently low to inhibit the oxidation processes. However, between these two limits there is a dangerous range of percolating air flows that will encourage spontaneous heating. 当空气渗透到许多有机物质中(包括煤)时,那么可以测得温度会上升。在压碎的硫化物矿石上可 以观察到同样现象,这是由一系列逐渐进行的吸附、吸附性的和化学过程引起的。这些过程产生热,并 且可以观察到温度的升高。由于物质温度的升高,产生越来越多的热量,而渗透的风量能把这些热量带 走。如果漏风量足够多,那么就会形成一种平衡状态:热量移去的速度与热量产生的速度相等;温度将 恒定。如果风量足够低以至于抑制了氧化作用,同样会达到一种空气抑制的平衡态。然而,渗透的风量 在这两界限之间时,是危险的,能够促进自发热的产生。 Each material that is liable to spontaneous combustion has a critical temperature known as the minimum self-heating temperature (SHT). This is the lowest temperature that will produce a sustained exothermic reaction or thermal runaway. Hence, if the temperature reaches the SHT before thermal equilibrium is attained then the oxidation process will accelerate. The temperature will escalate rapidly, encouraging even higher rates of oxidation until the material becomes incandescent. At this stage, smoke and gaseous products of combustion

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appear in the subsurface ventilation system. The mine then has a concealed fire. The primary dangers of such occurrences are the evolution of carbon monoxide, the ignition of methane and combustion progressing into airways to produce open fires. 每种易于自燃的物质都有一个临界温度,被称为最低自热温度(SHT)(燃点) 。最低自热温度是能够 产生持续的放热反应或者热失控的最低温度。因此,如果在热平衡前,达到最低自热温度时,氧化作用 会加快。温度会迅速地上升,使氧化速度更快,直到物质变成灼热的。在这个阶段,燃烧产生的烟和气 态物质出现在地下通风系统中。那么,矿山形成一种隐蔽火。这种现象的主要危害是:CO 的形成;引 起瓦斯的燃烧;燃烧发展到巷道中产生明火。 The phases of oxidation 氧化阶段 The oxidation processes of coal occur in four stages (Banerjee, 1985). 氧化过程包括四个阶段 (Banerjee, 1985). 1. Physical adsorption of oxygen commences at a temperature of about -80 degrees C and is reversible but diminishes rapidly as the temperature increases to become negligible beyond 30 to 50 degrees C. The process of adsorption produces heat as a by-product of the modified surface energy of the material. This causes the initial rise in temperature. 氧的物理吸附开始于温度大约在-80 度左右,并且是可逆的。但是,当温度升高到超过 30 度至 50 度时,物理吸附迅速减小,变得可以忽略。吸附过程产生的热是物质表面能量改变的副产品。这引起温 度的初始变化。 (潜伏期) 2. Chemical absorption (known also as chemisorption or activated sorption) becomes significant at about 5 degrees C. This progressively causes the formation of unstable compounds of hydrocarbons and oxygen known as peroxy-complexes. 温度在 5 度左右,化学吸附(称为化学吸附作用或者活性吸附作用)成为主要的作用。这引起越来 越多的活跃的烃类和氧类化合物(称为过化合物)的生成。 (自热阶段) 3. At a temperature which appears to approximate to the self-heating temperature (SHT) of the coal, the peroxy-complexes decompose at an accelerating rate to provide additional oxygen for the further stages of oxidation. This occurs within the range of approximately 50 to 120 degrees C with a typical value of 70 degrees C. At higher temperatures, the peroxy-complexes decompose at a greater rate than they are formed (Chakravorty, 1960) and the gaseous products of chemical reaction appear - in particular, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water vapour, and the oxalic acids, aromatic acids and unsaturated hydrocarbons that give the characteristic odour of "gobstink" . 当煤温度接近燃点时,过化合物加速分解,为氧化的进一步过程提供了额外的氧气。这发生在温度 大约在 50~120 度的范围内,最典型的是 70 度。如果温度更高,过化合物分解的速度比形成的速度要快, 化学反应生成的气态物质就会出现(特别如一氧化碳、二氧化碳、水蒸气、草酸、芳香酸和不饱和的烃 类,这具有典型的“采空区臭味” ) (自热阶段) 4. When the temperature exceeds some 150 degrees C, the combustion process accelerates rapidly. Incineration of the coal occurs with escalating emissions of the gaseous products of combustion. 当温度超过大约 150 度时,燃烧过程迅速加快。随着燃烧释放越来越多的气态物质,煤灰就会出现。 Susceptibility to spontaneous combustion 自燃倾向性 A large number of tests and indices have been devised as suggested measures of the liability of differing coals and other materials to spontaneous combustion. These have involved: 人们作大量的试验,提出了许多指标,建议作为鉴定煤和其他物质自燃倾向性的方法。这包括: 1. coal petrology and rank, the younger and lower ranks of coal being more susceptible 煤岩石特征和品级。成岩时间越晚,品级越低,煤越易自燃。 (注:易受影响的,) 2. rates of oxygen consumption or temperature rise at specified phases of the oxidation process 消耗氧气的速度或在氧化过程特定阶段温度升高的程度 3. self-heating temperatures (SHT) or other temperatures at specified stages of the heating process 燃点或加热过程特定阶段的其他温度 4. rates of heat production during isothermal or adiabatic tests. 在等温或绝热实验中产热速度 No such test or index has been found to have universal application. The difficulty is that susceptibility to spontaneous combustion depends not only upon the material but also its physical state as well as the psychrometric condition and migration paths of the leakage airflows, the latter depending, in turn, upon the mining methods and layout. The matters of additional relevance are:

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这些实验或指标没有一个能得到普遍运用。普遍运用的困难在于:自燃倾向性不仅取决于物质本身 而且还取决于物理状态、湿度条件和漏风移动通道,而后面因素依次取决于开采方法布置。这些附加因 素有: 1. amount and degree of comminution of crushed material left in the goaf (gob) area, these depending upon · friability of coal · type of coal winning machine · efficiency of coal clearance · roof, floor or pillar coal left (per centage extraction) · thickness of seams and need for multi-lift or caving mining systems · depth and pre-stressing (microfracturing) of coal · geological disturbances 1.遗留在采空区中粉碎物质的数量和粉碎程度,这取决于: 煤的脆性 采煤机械类型 煤清除效率 顶板、底板和支柱上的遗煤(开采百分率) 煤层厚度和是否需要多分层或崩落开采法 煤深和煤预应力(微孔) 地质干扰 2. methods of stowing and sealing of roadsides 2.装载方法和巷道侧的密闭方法 3. gradient of the seam and proximity of other seams 3.煤层倾斜度和其他煤层邻近度 4. length of face 4.工作面长度 5. rate of face advance or retreat 5.工作面前进或后退速度 6. roof/floor stability and strata stresses in the vicinity of pillar edges, stoppings, air crossings and ventilation doors 6.顶底板的坚固性和支柱边沿、风墙、风桥和风门附近的层压力 7. the air pressure differential across the affected area 7.影响区域的空气压力差 8. the layout and resistances of surrounding airways and faces, including obstructions 8.周围风巷、工作面(包括障碍物)的布置和阻力 9. degree of consolidation and, hence, resistance of the caved areas 9.压实程度,也就是塌陷区域的阻力 10. the relative moisture contents of the coal and air 10.煤和空气的相对含湿量 11. the reduction of oxygen content in the goaf (gob) areas by the emission of methane or other gases. 由于采空区中甲烷和其他气体的释放造成氧气含量的减少程度 With this number and variety of factors it is not too surprising that efforts to characterize the susceptibility of coals to spontaneous combustion purely on the basis of laboratory tests have met with rather limited success. An improved approach involves allocating weighted credit to each of the factors listed in an attempt to develop a site-specific indication of liability to spontaneous combustion (e.g. Banerjee, 1985; PD-NCB, 1978). 由于影响因素很多,所以仅仅在实验室试验基础上努力去鉴定煤的自燃倾向性,只能取得很有限的 成功,这是不奇怪的。一个改进方法是为列出的每一个因素分配权重,力图提出自燃倾向性的现场明确 指标。 Precautions against spontaneous combustion As with most potential hazards in the subsurface environment, precautionary measures against spontaneous commence at the time of planning and design of the mine. Core samples of the seam or ore should be subjected to susceptibility tests discussed in the previous section. The layout of the ventilation network should be designed to minimize pressure differentials between adjoining airways and across caved areas. This might be arranged, for example, by favouring through-flow rather than U-tube arrangements . While design airflows must be sufficient to deal with gases or other airborne pollutants, consideration should be given to means of reducing those airflows such as methane drainage. Booster fans, where allowed by law, provide a powerful means of air

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pressure management and, coupled with the techniques of network analysis to investigate locations and fan duties, are most valuable in reducing incidences of spontaneous combustion. Branch resistances in the surrounding ventilation network should be kept as low as practicable by means of larger cross-sections or driving parallel entries. Furthermore, obstructions in those airways should be avoided. The probability of spontaneous combustion can be reduced by minimizing the amount of coal, timber, paper, oily rags or other combustible materials that are left in gob areas. This may be inevitable if top coal must be left for the purposes of roof control. Nevertheless, efficient clearance of the fragmented coal from the face and good housekeeping should be practiced in mines that have a history of spontaneous combustion. It is important for the mine ventilation engineer to be conscious of the zones in which spontaneous combustion is most likely to occur. Recalling that some leakage takes place through the strata around stoppings and doors, spontaneous heating may occur in coal which exists within that strata, whether it be in the roof, floor or sides. Good strata control and the liberal application of roadway sealants can help in such circumstances. Pillars in coal mines should be designed large enough to minimize crushing at the edges and corners. Side bolts can help to maintain the integrity of pillars while the injection of low viscosity grouts might be used as a last resort. Here again, the application of surface sealants assists in preventing ingress of air. However, the most difficult types of spontaneous fires occur within caved zones and, in particular, in the goaf (gob) areas of coal mines.

New Word and Expressions
sulphide 硫化物 inhabit 阻止反应,减慢(反应的)速度 oxidation 氧化作用 SHT -self-heating temperature 最低自热温度 exothermic [化]发热的, 放出热量的 chemisorption 化学吸附作用 peroxy-complexe 过化合物 oxalic acid 草酸 aromatic acid 芳香酸 gobstink 采空区臭味 Incineration 烧成灰 susceptibility to spontaneous combustion自燃倾向性 petrology 岩石学 adiabatic [物]绝热的, 隔热的 goaf (gob) 采空区 friability 脆性 winning【矿】开采; 备采煤区 pillar 支柱 per centage extraction 开采百分率 multi-lift 多分层 caving mining 崩落开采法 gradient 倾斜度

Questions Assignment
Please translate the last two paragraphs of this text into Chinese.

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LESSON

11 Methods of Dust Control 粉尘控制方法

[教学内容] Introduction 、Ventilation、Water sprays、Dust collectors [教学目的] 通过该部分学习, 要求学生熟记 aerosol 浮质(气体中的悬浮微粒,如烟,雾等),、 microflora 微植物群、respiratory 呼吸的、abrasion 磨损、boring 打眼;钻进;钻探、extraction 采区、longwall 长 壁开采法、 shearer (滚筒式)采煤机等专业词汇,达到英文与中文相互熟练翻译的程度;深入理解 Ventilation、Water sprays 等内容,达到熟练阅读和正确、通顺地翻译的程度;了解 Dust collectors 等内容, 达到比较熟练和比较通顺翻译的程度。 [教学重点、难点] Ventilation [课时安排] 1.5 [授课方法] 讲授与讨论相结合 [教学过程]

一、复习旧课
1.回忆 SHT 、chemisorption(化学吸附作用)专业词汇的中文含义;氧化作用(oxidation) 、采空 区(goaf or gob) 、自燃倾向性 susceptibility to spontaneous combustion 英文表达。 2.Please describe the primary dangers of concealed fires. (the evolution of carbon monoxide, the ignition of methane and combustion progressing into airways to produce open fires)

二、教授新课
The natural atmosphere that we breathe contains not only its gaseous constituents but also large numbers of liquid and solid particles. These are known by the generic name aerosols. They arise from a combination of natural and industrial sources including condensation, smokes, volcanic activity, soils and sands, and microflora. Most of the particles are small enough to be invisible to the naked eye. Dust is the term we use in reference to the solid particles. The physiologies of air-breathing creatures have evolved to be able to deal efficiently with most of the aerosols that occur naturally. However, within closed industrial environments, concentrations of airborne particulates may reach levels that exceed the ability of the human respiratory system to expel them in a timely manner. In particular, mineral dusts are formed whenever rock is broken by impact, abrasion, crushing, cutting, grinding or explosives. The fragments that are formed are usually irregular in shape. The large total surface area of dust particles may render them more active physically, chemically and biologically than the parent material. This has an important bearing on the ability of certain dusts to produce lung diseases. 我们呼吸的自然大气中,不仅包包含气态成分,而且还包含液体和固体微粒。它们统一名称为悬浮 微粒。悬浮微粒的产生有自然方面又有工业方面的原因,这包括:凝结、烟气、火山活动、沙土和微植 物群。大部分微粒足够小,以至于人肉眼看不到。我们使用粉尘这个术语,指的是固体颗粒。呼吸空气 的生物的生理系统已进化为能够有效地对付自然情况下产生的悬浮颗粒。然而,在封闭的工业环境内, 悬浮空气中的微粒浓度可能超过人类呼吸系统能及时排除它们的程度。尤其是,只要岩石撞击、磨损、 挤压、切割、研磨或者爆破,就能够破碎,从而形成矿尘。形成的碎片通常在形状上是不规则的。物质 破碎后形成的尘粒总表面积增大,从而在物理、化学和生物方面活性增强。这就对某些微粒的能力产生 重要影响,能引起肺病。 The three major control methods used to reduce airborne dust in tunnels and underground mines: ventilation, water, and dust collectors. 减少隧道内和地下矿山中的悬浮粉尘,有三种主要控制方法:通风、水和粉尘捕获器。 Ventilation Ventilation air reduces dust through both dilution and displacement. The dilution mechanism operates when workers are surrounded by a dust cloud and additional air serves to reduce the dust concentration by diluting the

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cloud. The displacement mechanism operates when workers are upwind of dust sources and the air velocity is high enough to reliably keep the dust downwind. 通风气流通过稀释和置换作用减少粉尘。当工人处于粉尘云的包围中,稀释过程起作用,附加的气 流通过稀释尘云,减少粉尘的浓度。当工人逆着尘源的方向时,置换作用起作用,气流速度足够高以至 于可靠地使粉尘保持顺风方向。 1) Dilution Ventilation. The basic principle behind dilution ventilation is to provide more air and dilute the dust. Most of the time the dust is reduced roughly in proportion to the increase in airflow, but not always. The cost of and technical barriers to increased airflow can be substantial, particularly where air already moves through ventilation ductwork or shafts at velocities of 3,000 ft/min or more. 1)稀释通风 稀释通风的基本原理是提供更多的空气和稀释粉尘。大多数情况下,减少的粉尘与增 加的风量大致成比例,但并不总是这样。增加风量的费用和技术障碍是实际存在的,尤其是流过通风管 道或井筒的气流速度已达到 3000 英尺/f 分或更大。 2) Displacement Ventilation. The basic principle behind displacement ventilation is to use the airflow in a way that confines the dust source and keeps it away from workers by putting dust downwind of the workers. Every tunnel or mine passage with an airflow direction that puts dust downwind of workers uses displacement ventilation. In mines, continuous miner faces or tunnel boring machines on exhaust ventilation use displacement ventilation. Enclosure of a dust source, such as a conveyor belt transfer point, along with extraction of dusty air from the enclosure, is another example of displacement ventilation. Displacement ventilation can be hard to implement. However, if done well, it is the most effective dust control technique available, and it is worth considerable effort to get it right. The difficulty is that when workers are near a dust source, say, 10 to 20 ft from the source, keeping them upwind requires a substantial air velocity, typically between 60 and 150 ft/min. There is not always enough air available to achieve these velocities. 2)置换通风 置换通风的基本原理是利用风流约束尘源,使粉尘沿着工人下风向,从而远离工人。 任一隧道或矿山通道中,如风流方向使粉尘沿着工人下风向运动,使用的都是置换通风。在矿山中,回 风系统中连续采煤机的表面或隧道钻探机,使用的是置换通风。尘源的周围,例如运输皮带传送处连同 周围为多尘空气的采区,是置换通风的又一个例子。置换通风很难实现。然而,如果做得好,置换通风 是能利用的最有效的粉尘控制方法,值得付出大量的努力,使其运行良好。困难之处在于:当工人在尘 源附近时,比方说 10~20 英尺,使工人逆着风流需要相当大的风速,典型的是在 60 到 150 英尺/分之间。 并不总是有足够多的风量能达到这么大的风速。 Water sprays 洒水 The role of water sprays in mining is a dual one: (1) wetting of the broken material being transported and (2) airborne capture. Of the two, wetting of the broken material is far more effective. 开采中洒水的作用是双重的: (1)湿润正被运输的粉碎物质; (2)空中捕获。这两个作用中,湿润 粉碎物质非常有效。 Adequate wetting is extremely important for dust control. The vast majority of dust particles created during breakage are not released into the air, but stay attached to the surface of the broken material. Wetting this broken material ensures that the dust particles stay attached. As a result, adding more water can usually (but not always) be counted on to reduce dust. For example, coal mine operators have been able to reduce the dust from higher longwall production levels by raising the shearer water flow rate to an average of 100gpm. Compared to the amount of coal mined, on a weight basis, this 100gpm is equivalent to 1.9% added moisture from the shearer alone. Unfortunately, excessive moisture levels can also result in a host of materials handling problems, operational headaches, and product quality issues, so an upper limit on water use is sometimes reached rather quickly. As a result, an alternative to simply adding more water is to ensure that the broken material is being wetted uniformly. 适度的湿润对于粉尘控制来说是非常重要的。在粉碎过程中产生的粉尘颗粒大部分没有释放到空气 中,而是附着在粉碎物质的表面。湿润破碎的物质能够确保粉尘颗粒保持附着状态。因此,通常认为加 的水越多(但并不总是)也能减少粉尘。例如,煤矿操作员已能够通过提高(滚筒式)采煤机的水流速 度,来减少长壁开采较高水平的粉尘,以至达到 100(每分钟加仑数)。与开采煤的数量相比,以重量为基 础,采煤机单独加的湿度 100 加仑(分)等于 1.9%。可惜的是,过高的湿度也能导致许多材料的输送问 题,难于操作的问题,产品的质量问题,所以,用水的上限有时能很快的达到。因此,用以替代仅仅增 加水量的另外一种方法是确保粉碎的物质能够得到均匀的加湿。 Under actual mining conditions, the typical water spray operating at 100 psi and 1-2 gpm gives no more than 30% airborne capture of respirable dust. This is not as good as lab tests would lead one to believe. In lab tests, sprays were usually confined in a duct, and all of the dust was forced to pass through the spray. However,

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under actual mining conditions, dust clouds are unconfined. In all sprays, the moving droplets exert drag on the adjacent air; thus, sprays act to move the air. Because of this air entrainment effect, if a spray is aimed at an unconfined dust cloud, it will carry in air that spreads the cloud, thus making capture by the spray less efficient. Attempts to improve the airborne capture efficiency of sprays have not met with practical success. One approach has been to reduce droplet size, based on the notion that capture by smaller droplets is more efficient. Dust collectors Dust collectors can play a valuable role in dust reduction—if space is available to locate the collector and if the collector efficiency is high. Dust collectors range from low-volume filtration systems used in the cabs of mining equipment to high-volume wet collectors used on continuous miners in coal mines. It is important to recognize that the efficiency of a dust collector is the filtration efficiency of the unit times the capture efficiency of its inlet. For collectors properly designed to trap respirable dust, the filtration efficiency is usually quite high, in the 90%-95% range. The inlet capture efficiency is much more variable. The inlet capture efficiency is high, 80% or better, when the collector extracts air from an enclosed or semienclosed space, such as the cutter head space of a hard-rock TBM or the crusher on a longwall stageloader. If the coalbed is not too high, capture efficiency is also reasonable at continuous miner faces, which are dead-end spaces crammed with equipment. However, where there is less enclosure, such as in continuous miner faces in high coal, roadheader faces, or longwall shearer faces, inlet capture efficiency is poor, 50% or less, unless the collector air quantity is unreasonably high.

New Word and Expressions
aerosol 浮质(气体中的悬浮微粒,如烟,雾等), microflora 微植物群 respiratory 呼吸的 abrasion 磨损 boring 打眼;钻进;钻探 extraction 采区 longwall 长壁开采法 shearer (滚筒式)采煤机

Questions Assignment
Please translate the last two paragraphs of this text into Chinese.

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LESSON

12 Mine Drainage
矿山排水

[教学内容] Introduction 、UNDERGROUND WATER、MEANS OF MINE-WATER CONTROL (MINE DRAINAGE)、Drawdown Zone、METHODS OF REMOVING MINE WATER、Pumping Equipment [教学目的] 通过该部分学习,要求学生熟记 precipitation 降水、runoff 径流:未被土壤吸收的降雨、 water bearing rock 含水岩层、 stoping 顶蚀作用、 fault 断层、 carbonate 碳酸岩、 open pit 露天矿、 meteoric、 water 大气降水、magma 岩浆、zone of aeration 充气带、zone of saturation 饱水带、water table 潜水位、 topography 地貌、hydrostatic 流体静压力的、bentonite 斑脱土(火山灰分解成的一种粘土)等专业词汇, 达到英文与中文相互熟练翻译的程度;深入理解 UNDERGROUND WATER、MEANS OF MINE-WATER CONTROL (MINE DRAINAGE)等内容, 达到熟练阅读和正确、 通顺地翻译的程度; 了解 Drawdown Zone、 METHODS OF REMOVING MINE WATER、Pumping Equipment 等内容,达到比较熟练和比较通顺翻译 的程度。 [教学重点、难点] UNDERGROUND WATER [课时安排] 1.5 [授课方法] 讲授与讨论相结合 [教学过程]

一、复习旧课
1.回忆 aerosol(悬浮微粒) 、microflora(微生物群)专业词汇的中文含义;钻探(boring) 、采区 (extraction)英文表达。 2.Questions: (1) What are the three major control methods to reduce dust? ventilation, water spray, and dust collectors (2) What are the two mechanisms of ventilation? Dilution Ventilation and Displacement ventilation (3) What is the role of water spray? wetting of the broken material being transported and airborne capture. Of the two, wetting of the broken material is far more effective.

二、教授新课
Water invades almost every mine in the form of (1) direct precipitation (rain and snow), (2) surface runoff, and (3) underground percolation. Flows of water have an important effect on the cost and progress of many mining operations and present life and property hazards in some cases. 几乎每一个矿都会有水侵入,侵入形式为: (1)直接降水(雨和雪) ; (2)地面迳流(地面流走的水 就叫迳流) ; (3)地下渗透。涌水对许多开采作业的费用和进展会产生重要的影响,并且在某些情况下能 够造成人员伤亡和财产损失(注:多分支共干结构) 。 Water inflow into an underground mine is usually caused: 水涌入到地下矿山通常由以下因素引起: ·by mine opening traversing water bearing rocks; 矿山巷道穿过含水岩层 ·by stoping operations giving rise to caving and subsidence with resultant formation of cracks reaching ground-water reservoirs, water courses (streams) or bodies of water (lakes, sea, swamps); 顶蚀作用引起塌陷和下沉,结果就形成通向地面积水区、河道(河川)或水域(湖、海、沼泽)的 裂隙; (岩浆顶蚀作用 由炽热岩浆在围岩中引起的热破裂作用以及岩浆在破裂下沉的同时向裂隙的侵入

作用。 )
·by existence of faults extending to the surface or water zone; 存在延伸到地面或含水带(含水层)的断层; ·by a sudden inrush of a large quantity of water coming from flooded old mine workings, or underground

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cavities filled with water (caverns in carbonate rocks), or from surface water entering improperly located shafts and inclines. 突然从淹没的老塘(老工作区,老巷道) 、地下充满水的空洞(碳酸岩洞) 、进入到位置不恰当的立 井或斜井的地表水涌出大量的水。 注:working(复) :矿内巷道,矿内工作区 Water in surface mining is not likely to be as spectacular a problem as in underground mining but still it is an important factor in costs and output of many open pits. Maintenance of equipment which must be worked in mud and grit generally is more than normal and its output less. 虽然对于表层开采,水不象地下开采那样是一个很重大的问题,但是水仍然是影响许多露天矿成本 和产量的重要因素。在泥中和砂中运行的设备其维护量通常要比正常情况下要多,并且其产量较低。 UNDERGROUND WATER 地下水 Water is usually present in the ground at some depth below the surface. This ground water is derived mainly from rain and snow (meteoric water) except for a tiny portion that comes from magma (magmatic or juvenile water). Meteoric water passes down into the earth and part of it becomes stored in the pores and cracks of the subsurface zone and part of it circulates and enters water courses (streams) or other bodies of water. 水通常距表面有一定深度的场所。地表水主要来源于雨雪(大气降水) ,很少一部分来自于岩浆(岩 浆源水) 。大气降水进入地下,一部分存储到地下区域的微孔和裂隙中,一部分循环流入河道(川)或其 他水域。 A hole (well) penetrating the ground ordinarily passes first through a zone of aeration, the zone in which open spaces in the ground are normally filled mainly with air. The hole then enters the zone of saturation, the subsurface zone in which all openings are filled with water. The upper surface of the zone of saturation is the water table (Fig. 1). The depth of water table below the surface depends on the general climatic conditions at any particular location, topography, kinds of rock and geologic structure. The water table roughly follows the topographic surface level, being near the surface at the bottom of the valleys (ordinarily within a few meters of the surface) and rising under hills and mountains, beneath which it is farther from the surface (100 meters or more).

Figure 1 The water table 穿透地面的钻孔(井)一般首先通过充气带,该带地层敞开的空间内通常主要充满空气。钻孔然后 进入饱水带,该地下带内所有空隙都充满水。饱水带的上表面为地下水位(潜水位) 。地表下潜水位的深 度取决于特定位置的一般气候条件、地貌、岩石类型和地质结构。潜水位大约随着地表水平的地势,在 谷底的潜水位接近地表,山下的潜水位升高,远离地表(100 米或更高) 。 The movement of ground water depends on the permeability of the soil or rock. Permeability is capacity for transmitting fluids. A rock of very low porosity (porosity is the per cent of the total volume of a given body of rock that consists of pore spaces) is likely also to have low permeability. However, high porosity values do not necessarily mean high permeability values, because size and continuity of the openings influence permeability. Water is also stored in cracks and joints in rocks. As to the water permeability, rocks are said to be pervious (friable, fissured rocks) and impervious (clays, dense unfissured rocks). 地层水的运动取决于土壤或岩石的渗透性。渗透性是输送流体的能力。孔隙率低(孔隙率指的是给 定的岩体其孔隙体积所占总体积的百分率)的岩石很可能渗透性也低。然而,高孔隙率并不一定意味着 渗透性也高,因为孔的大小和连续性影响着渗透性。水也储存在岩石裂隙和接缝处。至于水的渗透性, 脆的、具裂缝的的岩石认为可渗透的,粘土、密集的未裂隙的岩石认为不可渗透的。 MEANS OF MINE-WATER CONTROL (MINE DRAINAGE) 控制矿山水的方法(矿山排水) As shafts and other mine openings extend below the water table, water is likely to be encountered and to
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seep into the openings to an extent depending upon the area of rock surface exposed, the hydrostatic pressure, and other factors. In order to continue mining operations, it is therefore necessary to lower the ground water level in the vicinity of the mine by artificial means to keep the workings free of water as well as preventing the flow of surface water into the (surface or underground) mine. This operation is known as mine drainage. 当井筒或其他矿山巷道延伸到潜水位以下时,很可能遇到水,水渗露到巷道的程度取决于暴露岩层 表面的区域、流体静压力和其他因素。为了能够继续开采作业,因此需要通过人工方法降低矿山邻近地 区的地层水位,保持巷道内无水,同时防止地表水流入到(地表或地下)矿山内。这种操作称为矿山排 水。 Means of mine drainage are limited by circumstances and objectives. The following types of mine-water control can be used singly or more effectively in combination: 矿山排水的方法受限于环境条件和客观因素。下面控制矿山水的种类可以单独使用,也可以更有效 地联合使用。 1) Locate shafts or excavations in best ground and protect from direct water inflow from surfaces. 使井筒或巷道建在最佳的地面上,以防止直接水从地表流入。 2) Divert or drain water at or near surface. 在地表或接近地表处,改变水的流向或者排水。 3) Reduce permeability of rock mass by grouting with special types of cement, bentonite and liquid chemical grouts (water sealing). 用特殊类型的水泥、斑脱土( 火山灰分解成的一种粘土)和液体化学浆(水填充物)进行注浆,以 降低岩石块的渗透性。 4) Case or cement exploration drill holes. 为探测钻孔下套管或用水泥涂探测钻孔。 5) Drill pilot holes in advance of work wherever there may be sudden influents at rates potentially inconvenient. 只要可能有突水,其速率可能不方便接近的地方,开采前打引水孔。 6) Dewater bedrock at depth by pumping through dewatering wells or from an accessible place in the mine. 通过疏水井和矿井内可利用的地方抽水,以降低岩床水位。 Drawdown Zone Lifting water from a well that intersects the water table lowers the water level and so creates a cone of depression (drawdown zone), a conical depression in the water table immediately surrounding a well. As a well is pumped, the drawdown increases until the well is dewatered or until, because of the steepening gradient of the drawdown surface, the rate of inflow balances the pumping and flow becomes steady. The greater the rock permeability, the shallower the drawdown surface profile is; and, therefore, greater amounts of groundwater have to be pumped to keep the underground environment dry. If permeability is not uniform the cone of depression is distorted. Where water is only in fractures, it is discontinuous. There are cases in both surface and underground mining in which advanced dewatering through wells probably is the most practical, and in some, the only apparent course . Dewatering wells are close-spaced so that cones of depression (or drawdown zones) overlap amply. Drawdown is usually maintained until a shaft can be sunk and lined, until more permanent pumping facilities are provided or until an ore body has been mined. If a deposit is opened up by vertical shafts, the shafts are like great dewatering wells. As the shaft is deepened, the drawdown zone volume and water inflow increase. METHODS OF REMOVING MINE WATER When water is encountered underground, it must be collected and removed from the mine by means of special drainage facilities. The method of mine drainage may be classified into two broad categories: 1. Gravity drainage (the siphon, ditches, drainage tunnels) 2. Pumping Gravity drainage is possible only if the mine is opened up by an adit. The adit, or drainage tunnel, driven under the lower workings of the mine can save the cost of pumping and eliminate the danger of the mine being flooded through failure of pumps. The drainage tunnel might also serve both as a haulage way and an airway. The siphon is used in gravity drainage of mine water to raise water from a basin or depression over a summit to a sump having a lower elevation than the source of supply. If a deposit is opened up by vertical shafts the water flows by gravity in ditches along the mine roadways into specially arranged drain sumps, from which it is pumped to the surface. Mine workings are made sloping towards the shaft location. The minimum water flow rate in ditches must be 0.25-0.5 m/s to prevent setting of rock particles. A sump is an underground pond at a level 3-4 m below the level of the shaft station, where the suspended

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solid material in the mine water can settle out in the quiet water. Sumps are made large enough to provide continuous operation of the pump for a reasonable time and to allow both for a sudden inrush of water and pump breakdowns. Pumping Equipment Many mines are equipped with main and subsidiary pumping plants. The main pumping plant handles the total inflow into the mine, and the subsidiary one delivers water from individual mine sections to the main pump sump. The pumping equipment consists essentially of pumps and pipes. Mine pumping plants use mainly two types of pumps: 1) The centrifugal pump 2) The plunger type of displacement pump (piston pump) In the centrifugal pump the suction and delivery of water are affected by a rapidly rotating impeller carrying a set of vanes, while in the piston pump the work is done by a piston or plunger traveling back and forth in a cylinder. The pumps at the sump are almost always centrifugal. Prior to the starting, the centrifugal pump must be filled with water (or primed). The pump may be installed above the level of the water to be pumped (suction type of pump intake) or below the water level (head type of pump intake). In the suction type it is necessary to have a foot valve on the intake side so the water does not drain from the pump. In the head type intake the pump is always Fig2.Suction type and head type of pump intak supplied with water because it is lower than the water surface (Fig.2).

New Word and Expressions
precipitation 降水:暴雨、雪、冻雪或冰雹降落到地表的任何形式的水 runoff 径流:未被土壤吸收的降雨 water bearing rock 含水岩层 stoping 顶蚀作用 fault 断层 carbonate 碳酸岩 open pit 露天矿 meteoric water 大气降水 magma 岩浆 zone of aeration 充气带 zone of saturation 饱水带 water table 潜水位 topography 地貌 hydrostatic 流体静压力的 bentonite 斑脱土(火山灰分解成的一种粘土)

Questions
1. What are the forms in which water invade mine? 2. How do water inflow into a mine? 3. What is the water table? 4. How control water?

Assignment
Please translate the last two paragraphs of this text into Chinese.

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LESSON

13 Mine Rescue Operations 矿山救护工作

[教学内容] Mine rescue team objective、 Mine rescue principles、 Competent persons appointed、 Procedures while underground [教学目的] 通过该部分学习, 要求学生熟记 cave-in 下陷, 塌陷、 resuscitating apparatus 苏生器、 refuge 避难所、countersigned 会签,确认签(一个已签文件) ,如为了使之生效、cylinder 汽缸、priority 需优先 考虑的事等专业词汇, 达到英文与中文相互熟练翻译的程度; 深入理解 Mine rescue principles、 Procedures while underground 等内容, 达到熟练阅读和正确、 通顺地翻译的程度; 了解 D Competent persons appointed 等内容,达到比较熟练和比较通顺翻译的程度。 [教学重点、难点] Mine rescue principles、Procedures while underground [课时安排] 1 [授课方法] 讲授与讨论相结合 [教学过程]

一、复习旧课
1.回忆 stoping 顶蚀作用、fault 断层专业词汇的中文含义;充气带 zone of aeration、饱水带 zone of saturation 、潜水位 water table 英文表达。 2.Questions: (1)What are the forms in which water invade mine? Water invades almost every mine in the form of (1) direct precipitation (rain and snow), (2) surface runoff, and (3) underground percolation. (3)What is the water table?which factors influent the the depth of water table? The upper surface of the zone of saturation is the water table (Fig. 1). The depth of water table below the surface depends on the general climatic conditions at any particular location, topography, kinds of rock and geologic structure. Mine rescue team objective 矿山救护队目标(任务) Most people associate “mine rescue” with “saving lives.” Although saving lives is the most important part of mine rescue work, there is more work involved. A more complete definition of mine rescue is: “the practiced response to a mine emergency situation that endangers life, property, and the continued operation of the mine.”\ 大多数人把矿山救护同抢救生命联系起来。尽管抢救生命是矿山救护的一项最重要的工作,但是矿 山救护还涉及到其他工作。矿山救护更完整的定义是“当矿山发生危及生命、财产和持续作业的紧急事 件时,作出的训练有素的反应。 Mine rescue principles 矿山救护的原则 Mine rescue and recovery work involves a wide variety of tasks. Four fundamental principles exist for an effective mine rescue operation. These principles, in order of importance, are: 1. Ensure the safety of the mine rescue team. 2. Make every effort to rescue or secure the safety of trapped workers. 3. Protect mine property from further damage caused by fire, cave-in, etc. 4. Return the mine to a safe condition so operations can resume. 矿山救护和急救工作包含大量的任务。有效的矿山救护工作包含个基本原则。这些原则,按照重要 顺序,依次为: 1.确保矿山救护队的安全。 2.尽最大努力营救被困工人或者保证他们的安全。 3.防止火、坍陷等因素使矿山财产遭到进一步的损失。 4.使矿山恢复到安全状态,从而作业能够继续。 Competent persons appointed 任命胜任的人员 Each mine must appoint a certified person who is responsible for maintaining the rescue equipment,

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training mine rescue personnel and acting as a Coordinator or briefing officer. The employer must have all breathing, resuscitating, testing apparatus, and mine refuge stations examined on a monthly basis and properly maintained. The record of this examination must be reported in writing to the employer who will have it countersigned. All rescue equipment must be maintained in a state of readiness for an emergency. Any supply shortages must be replaced. Inspectors from Saskatchewan Labour, OH&S Division, Mine Safety Unit may inspect the breathing apparatus and any other mine rescue equipment to make sure that the mine is properly equipped. As well, the inspectors may examine mine rescue training records to ensure personnel have the training to carry out a mine rescue and recovery operation. 每个矿山必须任命一个有资质的人员,负责维修仪器、培训矿山救护人员和担当协调员或下达简令 的官员。雇主必须拥有完备的呼吸器、苏生器、校验仪和矿山避难所,每月应检验这些设备,并对它们 进行适当的维修。检验报告应以书面形式报给雇主,雇主将在报告上签名。所有救护设备应保持准备就 绪状态,以应对紧急事件。补给短缺时,应及时提供补给。来自萨斯喀彻温工党,职业健康部门,矿山 安全单位的检查员可能检查呼吸器和其他任何矿山救护装备,以确保矿山装备良好。同时,检查员可能 检查矿山救护训练记录以确保救护人员进行了执行矿山救护和急救工作的训练。 (*教学手段:Ask all the students to translate the above italic sentence into Chinese by themselves. After 13minutes, have three students read their translation. Then ask the other students to select the best translation.) Procedures while underground 地下工作程序 Every task or exploration is different. Each one involves unknown factors and presents its own problems. It is difficult to predict precisely what a team may be required to do. Some accepted procedures developed over the years have become standard practice for teams during exploration. They are used as “guidelines” rather than “rules” because no procedure fits every situation. 每一个任务或探查都是困难的。每一个任务或探查包含了一些未知因素,并且产生了特有的问题。 要准确地预测救护对可能需要做什么,是困难的。经过多年发展形成的公认的程序已成为救护队在探查 期间的一般习惯。这些程序被用作指导方针,而不是规则,因为没有程序能够适合所有情况。 Team/equipment checks 队伍/设备的检查 Team checks should be done as soon as practicable after the team leaves the fresh air base, when it enters into a bad atmosphere and at regular intervals of 15 to 20 minutes. These checks help make sure: · each team member is fit and ready to continue · each team member’s apparatus is functioning properly · each team has enough rest Usually the Captain or Vice-Captain checks the team by halting the team briefly and asking each team member how they feel. The Captain or Vice-Captain also records the time of the check and the cylinder pressures. 当救护队离开新鲜空气基地后,进入恶劣的环境下,队伍的检查应尽快进行,正常时间间隔为 15 到 20 分钟。这些检查有助于确保: 队伍每个成员的身体状况良好,准备好继续工作 队伍每个成员携带的仪器运行良好 队伍有足够的休息 通常队长或副队长暂时中断队伍的工作,询问每一个成员感觉如何。队长或副队长也记录检查的时 间和汽缸压力。 Team safety The safety of the team is of utmost importance. It is the first principle of mine rescue. The Captain’s top priority is always team safety. 队伍的安全是最重要的,这是矿山救护的第一原则。队长的首先要考虑的通常是队伍的安全。 Teams entering a mine in an emergency are taking a calculated risk. Captains must give each situation careful thought before proceeding. Team safety comes first! The Captain should lead his team through the mine cautiously. He should pay very close attention to the roof and sides and to the condition of the mine atmosphere. 紧急情况下进入到矿山中的救护队冒一次有备之险。行动前,队长必须仔细考虑每种情况。队伍的 安全第一。队长应慎重地引导队伍通过矿山。他应非常注意巷道顶板和四周以及矿山中的空气条件。 The team must be rested regularly and members constantly checked for signs of distress. All work must be

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assigned as evenly as possible so that no team member becomes too tired. Excessive rushing or running, tires the team unnecessarily and, in some circumstances, may endanger lives. 救护队必须定期休息,应经常检查成员是否出现过度劳累的迹象。所有工作应尽可能平均分配,使 所有成员不会过度劳累。过度突进或奔跑,造成队伍不必要的疲劳,在某些情况下能威及生命。 Route of travel The rescue team should explore a mine via the fresh air route whenever possible. There are two good reasons for this practice: 1. The danger to the exploring team is less, and 2. The fresh air base can be located closer to the emergency. Circumstances may make it impossible to travel by a fresh air route. The Team Captain must always be sure the team has a safe route of retreat. If travelling underground via the exhaust shaft, ensure the hoistman is equipped with, and trained in the use of, breathing apparatus where necessary. A rescue team should always properly mark the route it uses going in so that: · the team can retrace its travel route without getting lost on the way out of the mine if working in poor visibility or in complicated mine workings, and · if the team gets into trouble and cannot get out of the mine, the back-up team coming to its rescue can find it by following the marked route The route should be clearly marked by whatever method the rescue operation chooses. Methods include: · fencing off the untraveled (or side) entries with physical barriers · drawing an arrow with a chalk or spray paint in the entry the team has taken from the intersection pointing towards the fresh air base. The arrow should be about 12" in length and drawn on the right wall about eye level in height · trailing communication lines or life lines, or · opening the rail switch points in the direction of travel Short stub intersections need not be marked with route markers if the face of the stub has been explored, dated and initialed by the Captain. All places of the team’s retreat should also be marked, dated and initialed. This could be the end of the entry, cave, seal, door, or just the team’s turn around in a long entry. If the team retraces its steps, route markers should be canceled. The details and method of route markings must be understood by all back-up teams. All team members must remain in visual contact with one another at all times. If this is not possible due to poor visibility, the members must keep in physical contact by using life lines, holding hands, carrying a stretcher, etc. This sometimes is not possible in smaller northern mines because cages are not big enough for a whole team. Extreme caution must be used when travelling under conditions of poor visibility. When any work is being done by the team (e.g., building stoppings, timbering, scaling, etc.) , the Captain or Vice-Captain must always be on guard against hazards or risks to the team’s health and safety.

New Word and Expressions
cave-in 下陷,塌陷 resuscitating apparatus 苏生器 refuge 避难所 countersigned 会签,确认签(一个已签文件) ,如为了使之生效 cylinder 汽缸 priority 需优先考虑的事

Questions Assignment
Please translate the last five paragraphs of this text into Chinese.

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LESSON

14 Survival Program 救生程序

[教学内容] Recognizing emergencies、Self-rescuers (filter-type) [教学目的] 通过该部分学习, 要求学生熟记 fall of ground (1) 顶板岩石崩落 (2) 地层塌落、 stench 恶臭, 臭气、hoistman 提升机司机、dispatch centre 调度中心、filter-type 过滤式、self-rescuer 自救器等 专业词汇,达到英文与中文相互熟练翻译的程度;深入理解 Recognizing emergencies 等内容,达到熟练 阅读和正确、通顺地翻译的程度;了解 Self-rescuer 等内容,达到比较熟练和比较通顺翻译的程度。 [教学重点、难点] Recognizing emergencies [课时安排] 1 [授课方法] 讲授与讨论相结合 [教学过程]

一、复习旧课
1.回忆 cave-in 下陷,塌陷、resuscitating apparatus (苏生器)专业词汇的中文含义;避难所 refuge 英文表达。 2.Questions: (1)what’s the definition of mine rescue ? the practiced response to a mine emergency situation that endangers life, property, and the continued operation of the mine. (2)What is the most important founmental principle of mine rescue? Ensure the safety of the mine rescue team. Recognizing emergencies 辨认紧急事件 Mine workers must always be on the alert for unusual occurrences or emergencies. Early identification of a problem and the response to it, can mean the difference between life and death for everyone in the area. 矿工必须始终警惕异常事件或紧急事件的发生。及早鉴别问题,并采取相对的行动,将决定该区域 内所有人的生死。 It is extremely important that every worker be able to recognize the early signs of an imminent emergency, such as a fire, inrush of water, severe fall of ground, or an unusual gaseous condition. 每个矿工都应能够辨认即将发生紧急事件(例如火、涌水、严重的顶板岩石崩落或异常气体条件) 的早期征兆,这非常重要。 The following are some of the signs or indications of possible emergencies: 下面是可能发生紧急事件的一些征兆: · sudden changes in ventilation 通风的突然变化 · blasts of air, caused by a fall of ground or inrush of water 由顶板岩石崩落或者涌水引起的空气冲击波 · the odours of smoke or other contaminants 烟或其他污染物的气味 · unusual noises or explosions 异常的噪音或者爆炸声 · interruption of normal services such as power failures 正常服务中断(例如停电) · fire alarm/emergency warning system such as stench gas 火灾警报/紧急事件报警系统(例如臭气:一般为乙硫醇,井下报警用) · visual or audio warning 声光报警 · unusual hurrying of workers 工人的异常慌乱

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Important: Any of these signs could mean that something irregular or dangerous has happened and that quick action may be necessary to prevent loss of life. 重要:所有这些征兆可能预示着异常情况或者危险情况已经发生,可能需要迅速行动起来以避免丧 失生命 Upon discovering a problem a worker should: 一发现情况,工人应当: · Investigate the problem or report to the supervisor who should take control. 调查该情况或者报给对其负责的检查员 · If the supervisor is unavailable and an alarm has still not been activated, an effort should be made to phone the hoistman, dispatch centre, or mine officials. 如果检查员不在,并且警报还没有激活,应尽力打电话给提升机司机、调度中心或者矿山官员。 If the situation is such that the worker believes that evacuation is warranted, or anytime the fire alarm warning system is activated, all work should cease. Workers should, without delay, implement the emergency procedures that are outlined in the company’s emergency procedures manual. 如果工人认为应该撤退时或者不论何时火警系统启动时,所有工作应该停止。工人应当立即实施公 司紧急事件处理程序手册上所概述的程序。

Important: Normally, workers should not attempt to make their way to safety through smoky and heavily contaminated areas while wearing only the filter-type self-rescuers. Filter-type selfrescuers will only provide respiratory protection against low concentrations of carbon monoxide. They do not provide protection against various other gases or an oxygen deficient atmosphere. A worker is usually far better off taking refuge behind a barricade in a safe and uncontaminated entry. During a mine emergency, workers with basic knowledge and proper emergency training, who act in a calm, rational manner, have an excellent chance of surviving. 一般情况下,当工人仅仅佩带过滤式自救器时,那么不应尝试向前通过充满烟的或者严重污染的区 域以到达安全地区。过滤式自救器仅仅保护呼吸不受低浓度一氧化碳的影响。它们不能保护呼吸不受各 种各样的其他气体或者氧气不足空气的影响(正反处理法翻译技巧) 。通常,工人最好躲在位于安全和不 受污染的水平巷道中的路障后面的避难所。 矿山发生紧急事件期间,具备基本知识和接受紧急事件训练的工人,行动冷静,采取措施合理,很 有机会生还。 Self-rescuers (filter-type) General “Self-Rescuers” are onetime use devices used for escape purposes only. The types commonly used are the: MSA W-65, and Drager FSR-810. Rugged construction allows both to be carried by workers or mounted on mobile equipment ready for instant use. As part of underground orientation for workers, the mine employer must familiarize each worker with the emergency procedures and the rescue equipment available. This includes self-rescuers available in the mine. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use of self-rescuers. Filter-type self-rescurers This type of rescuer consists of a small canister with a mouthpiece directly attached to it. The wearer breathes through the mouth, while the nose is closed by a clip. Filter-type carbon monoxide self-rescuers do not protect against noxious gases or a deficiency of oxygen. The presence of carbon monoxide in the air is indicated by heat generated in the self-rescuer when it is being worn. Both types of respirator will provide adequate protection for 60 minutes in air with a one percent concentration of carbon monoxide.

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Figure 1.Wearing the MSA W-65 Self-Rescuer At one percent or higher carbon monoxide concentrations, heat generated by the chemical reaction with the hopcalite in the self-rescuer will make breathing practically unbearable. All units have a built-in heat exchanger to help reduce the temperature of the air reaching the wearer’s mouth. Self-Contained Self-Rescuers (SCSR) A self-rescuer has or is able to generate its own supply of oxygen. Types commonly used are the MSA Auer SSR30/100 and the Ocenco M-20. These are generally good for 20 minutes to one hour of use, depending on the type and how hard the wearer is working. Rugged construction allows SCSRs to be carried by personnel while at work or be mounted on mobile equipment ready for instant use. These units are compact and isolate the user’s lungs from the surrounding atmosphere. They use compressed or chemically produced oxygen to provide respiratory protection. These are easy to activate and don. Important: The self-rescuer must be kept on and used, regardless of the heat generated, until the wearer reaches safety. .

New Word and Expressions
cave-in 下陷,塌陷 fall of ground (1)顶板岩石崩落 (2)地层塌落 stench 恶臭, 臭气 hoistman 提升机司机 dispatch centre 调度中心 filter-type 过滤式 self-rescuer 自救器

Questions Assignment
Please translate the last five paragraphs of this text into Chinese

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Part Ⅲ

Mine Health

LESSON

15

Hearing Loss among Miners and Measures to Protect Hearing 矿工听力损失和保护听力的方法
[教学内容] Introduction 、 Engineering controls should be the number one priority in the battle to eliminate hazardous noise、What about hearing roof noises? [教学目的] 通过该部分学习,要求学生熟记 hearing aid 助听器、hearing protector 听力防护罩、 NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)国立职业安全与健康研究所、sound barrier 声障、dampen 消音,隔音、cab (机车, 卡车, 起重机的)司机室, 驾驶室、muffle(用东西蒙住或包扎 住)使声音降低、earplug 耳塞、eardrum [解]耳膜、active circuit 有源电路等专业词汇,达到英文与中文 相互熟练翻译的程度;深入理解 Introduction 、Engineering controls should be the number one priority in the battle to eliminate hazardous noise 等内容,达到熟练阅读和正确、通顺地翻译的程度;了解 What about hearing roof noises 等内容,达到比较熟练和比较通顺翻译的程度。 [教学重点、难点] Engineering controls should be the number one priority in the battle to eliminate hazardous noise [课时安排] 1.5 [授课方法] 讲授与讨论相结合 [教学过程]

一、复习旧课
1. 回忆 fall of ground 顶板岩石崩落、 stench 恶臭, 臭气专业词汇的中文含义; 调度中心 dispatch centre 自救器 self-rescuer 的英文表达。 2.Questions: Upon discovering a problem what a worker should do firstly? Investigate the problem or report to the supervisor who should take control.

二、教授新课
Everyone knows that mining is a noisy job, but did you know that you are nine times more likely to lose your hearing than someone who works in a quieter job? If unprotected from noise on the job, by age 50, you will probably need hearing aids. Obviously, the best solution is to engineer out the noise, but that isn’t always immediately possible. Until mines are quieter, one way you can help save your vital sense of hearing is to use hearing protectors whenever the noise around you is hazardous. Even if you already have some hearing loss, you can use hearing protectors to prevent your hearing from getting worse. When loud noise is present, proper use of hearing protectors will help miners pre-vent most or all noise-induced hearing loss. 每个人都知道采矿业是一个嘈杂的行业,但你听力损失的可能性是从事安静工作人员的九倍还多, 这个你知道吗?如果在工作中不保护自己遭受噪音的危害,那么到 50 岁时,你将可能需要助听器。很显 然,最好的办法是从技术上消除噪声,但是通常这并不能马上实现(很难实现) 。除非矿山是较安静的, 否则只要你周围的噪音具有危害性,帮助你保护及其重要的听觉的一个方法是使用听力防护罩。即使你 已损失了部分听力,你也应使用听力防护罩,以阻止听力的进一步恶化。当巨大的噪声存在时,正确使 用听力防护罩将有助于矿工预防大多数甚至全部导致听力损失的噪声。 The tools and machines that miners use are noisy enough to cause most miners to lose some or much of their hearing. NIOSH analyzed hearing tests from a large sample of coal miners. This chart shows that by age

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30, coal miners have about as much permanent hearing loss as a healthy, non-noise exposed male worker will have at age 50. This chart also shows that coal miners’ hearing loss continues to get worse. If current trends continue, by the time the average coal miner retires, 9 out of 10 will have a serious hearing handicap. Other types of mining (surface, metal/ nonmetal, etc.) require noisy tasks that are equally hazardous to hearing. 矿工使用的工具和机器发生的声音是嘈杂的,足以引起大多数矿工损失部分或全部听力。 (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)国立职业安全与健康研究所分析了对大量煤矿工人的听力测 试。该表显示了:煤矿工人 30 岁时的听力永久损失程度大约与健康的、不接触噪声的男性工人 50 岁时 听力永久损失程度一样。该表还显示了,煤矿工人的听力损失是持续恶化的。如果当前趋势持续下去, 那么到煤矿工人的平均退休年龄时,90%的工人将有严重的听力障碍。其他类型的采矿行业(地面,金 属/非金属,等)需要嘈杂的作业,对听力具有同等危害性。 Both employers and miners, working together, can take steps to reduce the risk of permanent hearing loss. 矿主和矿工应一起采取措施,以降低听力永久损失的危险性。 Engineering controls should be the number one priority in the battle to eliminate hazardous noise. 在消除噪音危害的战役中,技术控制的方法是第一位的 When replacing or upgrading equipment, mine owners and operators should “buy quiet” whenever possible. In many situations, sound barriers, sound dampening material, enclosed cabs, or other noise controls can reduce miner ’s exposure to noise. But, if engineering controls have not eliminated the noise hazard, then employers should provide hearing protectors that meet the special needs of miners for: (1) comfort, (2) convenience, and (3) usability in a mining environment. Employers should provide training to miners on how to select and wear a variety of hearing protectors, and miners should make a conscientious effort to use the devices effectively. 当矿主和操作员更换或升级设备时,只要可能,应当购买无噪音的设备。许多情况下,声障、隔音 材料、封闭的驾驶室或其他噪音控制方法能够降低矿工的噪声接触;。但是,如果技术控制方法不能消除 噪声危害,那么矿主应当提供听力防护罩。防护罩应满足矿工的特殊需要: (1)舒适, (2)方便, (3) 在采矿环境下可用。矿主应该培训矿工如何选择和佩带各种各样的听力防护罩,矿工应当尽心尽责地有 效使用这些防护设备。 Miners need to know that hearing protectors can safely be worn in a mine along with other safety equipment. In fact, sometimes hearing protectors can actually help miners hear warning signals, alarms, and speech by muffling the level of continuous background noise. Miners should also be assured that properly worn earplugs will not damage their ear canals or eardrums. If the job requires miners to talk with one another, hearing protectors with built-in communication circuits are available. New protectors with active circuits that muffle background noise while amplifying nearby speech are available. These may be especially useful in a mining environment where the noise is intermittent. Some of these electronic devices may not yet be approved for underground mining, but are already in use for above ground mining and heavy construction. 矿工应该明白:矿山中,他们可以连同其他 安全装备来安全地佩带听力防护罩和。事实上, 有时听力防护罩使持续的背景噪音减弱,能够帮 助矿工听到警告信号、发警报、说话。矿工也应 确信:正确的佩带耳塞不会损害他们的耳膜。如 果矿工工作中需要相互通话时,可使用内置通信 电路的听力防护罩。当矿山环境的噪音断断续续 时,这些装置尤为有用。出现一种带有有源电路 的防护罩,能够减弱背景噪音,而放大附近的语 音。这些电子装置,有些还没有在地下采矿中得 到试验证明,但它们已经在地面开采和大规模的 建筑行业得到应用。 (*教学手段:Ask all the students to translate the above italic sentence into Chinese by themselves. After 20minutes, have three students read their translation. Then ask the other students to select the best translation.)

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Picking a hearing protector is like trying on shoes: no single device will suit everyone. NIOSH has published a booklet that lists over 50 manufacturers and nearly 250 different hearing protectors including many types of earplugs, earmuffs, and banded canal inserts. Employers can help by making a variety of these devices available. Miners need to keep trying hearing protectors until they find one that they are willing to wear. The single leading cause of hearing loss among miners exposed to hazardous noise is failure to wear hearing protection every time and all of the time that they are working in hazardous noise. Figure 1 shows the surprising drop in the amount of effective protection you will get from your hearing protector if you don’t wear it 100% of the time you are in hazardous noise. For this example, let’s assume you work in hazardous noise for an entire 8 hour shift. Let’s say you take your hearing protector off a few minutes here, and a few minutes there so that you actually wear your hearing protector 7 hours out of the noisy 8-hour day. Because of the way your ear interacts with noise, this would result in a loss of almost 75% of the hearing protector’s effective protection! In this example, a person who was exposed to a time-weighted average noise level of 95 decibels might think that an earplug with a Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) of 30 would provide plenty of protection. But, because the earplug was not worn 100% of the time the worker was in hazardous noise, it’s effective NRR was only about 8 decibels. As a result, this person’s noise exposure will be much worse than they thought: 87 decibels, noise. This will prevent instead of 65 decibels. Exposure to 87 decibels doesn’t sound like a lot, but research has shown that over time, even this much noise exposure can cause permanent hearing loss in many people. Remember---you might think that by wearing an earplug most of the time, you will be fully protected from hazardous noise. But as Figure 2 shows, you need to wear hearing protection consistently whenever the noise is hazardous. This is actually not very different from the need to wear welders’ goggles whenever welding, and not just “most of the time”. What about hearing roof noises? Many underground miners share a concern about being able to hear noises that indicate a roof fall may be about to occur. Miners may assume that if they are wearing hearing protectors, they will not be able to hear these roof noises. Because of the importance of this issue, it has been carefully studied both in the United States as well as in Australia. We now know that: (1) The machinery used in mining operations is loud enough to cover up the sounds made by the roof working …. “roof-talk”. (2) Wearing hearing protectors while noisy machinery is in use does NOT affect whether or not a miner hears roof noises. In other words, miners can’t hear roof noises during mining operations because the machinery “drowns out” the roof noises, not because hearing protectors “block out” roof noises. When loud noise is not present, naturally, there is no need to wear hearing protection. If miners want to be able to hear the roof working, it is very important for them to wear their hearing protectors every time they are in hazardous noise. This will prevent miners from developing both temporary and permanent hearing loss. Either of these types of hearing losses will interfere with miners ability to hear ALL kinds of sounds---including roof noises. Miners who have not protected their hearing may have enough temporary or permanent hearing loss to interfere with their ability to hear roof noises---even in quiet. Miners who have protected their hearing will have the advantage! They will be most able to hear roof noises and take appropriate [evasive] action.

New Word and Expressions
hearing aid 助听器 hearing protector 听力防护罩 NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)国立职业安全与健康研究所 sound barrier 声障

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dampen 消音,隔音 cab (机车, 卡车, 起重机的)司机室, 驾驶室 muffle(用东西蒙住或包扎住)使声音降低 earplug 耳塞 ear canal 耳道 eardrum [解]耳膜 active circuit 有源电路

Questions Assignment
Please translate the last four paragraphs of this text into Chinese

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LESSON

16 Heat Illness 热疾

[教学内容] Introduction 、 Heat fainting、 Heat exhaustion、 Heat cramps、 Heat stroke、 Precautions against heat illnesse [ 教学目的 ] 通过该部分学习,要求学生熟记 Thermoregulation [ 生理 ] 体温调节 , 温度调节、 absenteeism 旷工、heat fainting 热昏晕、conductance [电工]电导, 导率, 电导系数、intake【医】摄取、 chamber 室、numbness 麻木, 麻痹、palpitation 心悸、nausea 恶心等专业词汇,达到英文与中文相互熟 练翻译的程度;深入理解 Heat fainting、Heat exhaustion 等内容,达到熟练阅读和正确、通顺地翻译的程 度;了解 Heat cramps、Heat stroke、Precautions against heat illnesse 等内容,达到比较熟练和比较通顺翻 译的程度。 [教学重点、难点] Heat exhaustion [课时安排] 1.5 [授课方法] 讲授与讨论相结合 [教学过程]

一、复习旧课
1. 回忆 NISOH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 国立职业安全与健康研究) 、 ear cana (声道)专业词汇的中文含义;助听器(hearing aid)声障、sound barrier 的英文表达。 2.Please describe the special needs of miners that hearing protectors (: (1) comfort, (2) convenience, and (3) usability in a mining environment..)

二、教授新课
Heat is emitted into subsurface ventilation systems from a variety of sources. In the majority of the world's coal mines, the airstream itself is sufficient to remove the heat that is produced. In deep metal mines, heat is usually the dominant environmental problem and may necessitate the use of large-scale refrigeration plant. Conversely, in cold climates, the intake air may require artificial heating in order to create conditions that are tolerable for both personnel and equipment. 释放热到地下通风系统中的热源多种多样。 (注:该句的翻译采用正反处理译法。我们前面讲过科技

英语中大量使用被动句,而在汉语中也很少使用,大多需要把被动句改译为主动句。大家回忆一下被动 句改译为主动句呢?让一名同学来回答:原文主语仍做主语;原文的某个成分做主语;加一个主语;译 成无主语句)全世界的大多数煤矿中,风流自身就能够把产生的热带走。在金属深井中,热通常是一个
主要的环境问题,可能必须使用大规模的制冷设备。相反,寒冷气候中,进风流需要人工加热,以创造 人员和设备都可接受的条件。注:necessitate 使成为必需 The human thermoregulation system depends upon the efficient operation of the core and skin temperature receptors, the flow of blood throughout the body but particularly between the core and skin tissues, and the production of perspiration. If any of these mechanisms loses its effectiveness then the body will progressively exhibit the symptoms of one or more of a series of disorders known collectively as the heat illnesses. These may arise as separate and recognizable ailments with identifiable causes. However, for workers in hot and humid environments they may occur in combination. 人类体温调节系统依靠温度感受体:体核和皮肤的有效工作;遍及全身的血液流动,尤其是体核和 皮肤组织之间的血液流动;排汗量。如果这些机能任何一个丧失了效力,那么身体将逐渐显示出一种或 多种失调的征兆,这共同称为热疾病。这些疾病可能单独出现,可以识别类型和原因。然而,工作在湿 热环境下的工人,可能出现组合性的疾病。

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A common initial symptom is a loss of interest in the task and difficulty in remaining alert. In any adverse environment, the desire to seek more comfortable surroundings is a psychological reaction that is just as much a part of the body's defence mechanism as thermoregulatory effects. Suppression of such predilection may result in irritability or displays of anger. This may be observed even in persons who are cognizant of the effect. The physical symptoms often reveal themselves first as a loss of coordination and dexterity. (have a student read the above paragraph) 初期的普

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